INFLUENCE OF POLISHING SYSTEM ON COLOR CHANGES FOR A NANOIONOMER RESTORATIVE MATERIAL AFTER IMMERSION IN A COFFEE-BASED SOLUTION
Keywords:Nanoionomer, Polishing system, Coffee, Discoloration
Objective: In this study, we aim to assess a polishing system’s influence on the color change of a nanoionomer after immersion in a coffee-based
Methods: The specimens were divided into four groups, of which three of them were polished using Sof-Lex XT, PoGo, or OptraPol. However, the
samples in the fourth group were unpolished. The color was then determined using a spectrophotometer and color changes were evaluated using a
CIELAB system. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and paired samples t-test systems.
Results: While the lightness (L*) value significantly decreased (p<0.05) after the polishing procedure, the red-green coordinate (a*) and yellow-blue
coordinate (b*) values did not show any significant change for any of the groups. The samples that were polished using OptraPol demonstrated the
smallest color change after polishing; moreover, for this group, the color changes were significantly different from those that were observed for PoGo
and Sof-Lex XT groups. After immersing into a coffee-based solution, there were significant changes observed for the L*, a*, and b* values (p<0.05) for
all the groups that were studied. Importantly, the color changes that were observed for the OptraPol group were not statistically significant compared
to those that were observed for PoGo and the unpolished groups.
Conclusion: The immersion of unpolished and polished nanoionomers in a coffee-based solution will result into color changes and the smallest
variations, in this case, occurred for the nanoionomer that was polished using OptraPol.
nano-ionomers suitable for othodontic bracket bonding? Eur J Orthod
2. Sakaguchi RL, Power JM. Craig’s Restotrative Dental Materials.
13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012. p. 186.
3. Philips RW. Skinner’s Science of Dental Materials. 8th ed. Philadelphia,
PA: W.B. Saunders; 1982. p. 578-86.
4. Jefferies SR. Abrasive finishing and polishing in restorative dentistry:
A state-of-the art review. Dent Clin North Am 2007;51:379-97.
5. Bouvier D, Duprez JP, Lissac M. Comparative evaluation of polishing
systems on the surface of three aesthetic materials. J Oral Rehabil
6. Mallya PL, Acharya S, Ballal V, Ginjupalli K, Kundabala M, Thomas M.
Profilometric study to compare the effectiveness of various finishing
and polishing techniques in different restorative glass ionomer cement.
J Interdiscip Dent 2013;3 Suppl 2:86-91.
7. Hartono. The World’s Third Largest Coffee Production in the World.
2013. Available from: http://www.Kemenperin.go.id/artikel/6611/
Produksi-Kopi-Nusantara-Ketiga-Terbesar-Di-Dunia. [Last cited on
2014 Jun 07].
8. Erta? E, Güler AU, Yücel AC, Köprülü H, Güler E. Color stability
of resin composites after immersion in different drinks. Dent Mater J
9. Chan KC, Fuller JL, Hormati AA. The ability of foods to stain two
composite resins. J Prosthet Dent 1980;43:542-5.
10. Gupta R, Parkash H, Shah N, Jain V. A spectrophotometric evaluation
of color changes of various tooth colored veneering materials after
exposure to commonly consumed beverages. J Indian Prosthodont Soc
2005;5 Suppl 2:72-8.
11. 3M ESPE. Ketac TM. Technical Product Profile Ketac Cem Plus; 2005.
Available from: http://www.multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/367659O/
ketac-cem-plus-technical-profile-in-english.pdf. [Last accessed on
2018 Aug 06].
12. Guler AU, Yilmaz F, Kulunk T, Guler E, Kurt S. Effect of different
drinks om stainability of resin composite provesional restorative
materials. J Prosthet Dent 2005;94 Suppl 2:118-24.
13. Schmitt VL, Puppin-Rontani RM, Naufel FS, Nahsan FP, Sinhoreti MA,
Baseggio W. Effect of the polishing procedures on color stability and
surface roughness of composite resins. ISRN Dent 2011;2011:617672.
14. Ghinea R, Ugarte-Alvan L, Yebra A, Pecho OE, Paravina RD, del Mar
Perez M. Influrnce of surface roughness on the color of dental-resin
composite. J Ahejiang Univ Sci B 2011;12 Suppl 7:552-62.
15. Bala O, Arisu HD, Yikilgan I, Arslan S, Gullu A. Evaluation of surface
roughness and hardness of different glass ionomer cement. Eur J Dent
16. Sidhu SK, Pilecki P, Sherriff M, Watson TF. Crack closure on rehydration
of glass-ionomer materials. Eur J Oral Sci 2004;112 Suppl 5:465-9.
17. Naorungoj S. Effect of Surface Sealant on Staining Resistance of Novel
Tooth-Colored Restoratove Materials. Chapel Hill: University of North
Carolina; 2010. p. 39.
18. Padiyar N, Kaurani P. Color stabillity: An important physical property
of esthetic restorative materials. Int J Clin Dent Sci 2010;Suppl 1:81-4.
19. Hattab F, Qudeimat M, Al-Rimawi H. Dental discoloration: An
overview. J Esthet Dent 1999;11:291-310.
20. Preedy VR. Coffee in Health and Disease Prevention. 1st ed. San Diego:
Elsevier; 2014. p. 183.
21. De la Cruz AA, Hilbert G, Mengin V, Riviere C, Ollat N, Vitrac C, et al.
Anthocyanin phytochemical profiles and anti-oxidant activities of Vitis
candicans and Vitis doaniana. Phytochem Anal 2013;24:446-52.