OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE- AND ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF MAHKOTA DEWA (PHALERIA MACROCARPA [SCHEFF.] BOERL.) FRUIT PULP

  • ROSITA HANDAYANI Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • ANDRE BANGUN Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • PASKAH DEWI DEBORAH Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • ABDUL MUN’IM Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

Abstract

Objective: This work aimed to determine the optimal extraction conditions of Mahkota dewa using different extraction methods: microwave-assisted
extraction with ethanol (MAE-ethanol), ultrasonic-assisted extraction using a choline chloride natural deep eutectic solvent (UAE-NADES), and
Soxhlet and reflux extractions.
Methods: Experimental design was performed through Box-Behnken. The efficiency of the methods was evaluated based on the total phenolic content
(TPC) and antioxidant activity. The presence of relevant compounds was qualitatively assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Results: For the MAE-ethanol method, optimum extraction was achieved with 65% ethanol, in 1 min under 30% microwave power, and a 1:12 sample–
solvent ratio, which yielded a TPC and antioxidant activity of 62.79±0.74 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g powder and 30.48±0.32%, respectively. In
UAE-NADES, the optimal conditions were choline chloride: lactic acid ratio of 1:4 with a 50% water addition, 20 min extraction (TPC and antioxidant
activity of 65.25 mg GAE/g powder and 26.45±0.02%). The Soxhlet and reflux methods gave a TPC of 49.68±0.59 and 50.98±0.54 mg GAE/g powder,
and antioxidant activity of 22.87±0.13% and 25.97±0.34%, respectively. Qualitative HPLC analysis showed the presence of quercetin, mahkoside A,
4,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and mangiferin.
Conclusion: MAE-ethanol was more efficient than the conventional Soxhlet and reflux methods and performed similarly to UAE-NADES in terms of TPC.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Mahkota dewa, Microwave-assisted extraction, Natural deep eutectic solvents, Phaleria macrocarpa, Total phenolic content

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HANDAYANI, R., BANGUN, A., DEBORAH, P. D., & MUN’IM, A. (2020). OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE- AND ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF MAHKOTA DEWA (PHALERIA MACROCARPA [SCHEFF.] BOERL.) FRUIT PULP. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(1), 32-37. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF002
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