APPLICATION OF GREEN EXTRACTION METHODS TO RESVERATROL EXTRACTION FROM PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) SKIN
Objective: This study compared the maceration extraction method with non-conventional extraction methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction
(UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).
Methods: To obtain resveratrol, various conditions were optimized: Solvent types (organic solvent [i.e. 70% ethanol] and green solvents [i.e. natural
deep eutectic solvent (NADES) and ionic liquid (IL)]) and extraction methods. The resveratrol content in the extracts was analyzed by high-performance
Results: It was determined that resveratrol extracted by UAE with NADES was composed of choline chloride–oxalic acid when the following
conditions were used: The solid/liquid ratio of 1:20 (g/mL) and the extraction time of 15 min. These conditions produced higher resveratrol content
(0.049 mg/g dry weight) than that using MAE with 70% ethanol (0.011 mg/g dry weight). However, the maceration method yielded the highest
amount of resveratrol (0.221 mg/g dry weight), and MAE with IL produced the smallest amount of resveratrol (0.157 × 10−3 mg/g dry weight).
Conclusion: Peanut skin extracted using the maceration method produced the highest amount of resveratrol compared to that using other methods.
expression of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA in hamsters. Biochem
Biophys Res Commun 2008;367:190-4.
2. Hafidz KA, Puspitasari N, Azminah, Yanuar A, Artha Y, Mun’im A.
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of Gnetum gnemon Seed
extract and identification of potential inhibitors for lowering cholesterol
level. J Young Pharm 2017;9:559-65.
3. Shimizu-Ibuka A, Udagawa H, Kobayashi-Hattori K, Mura K,
Tokue C, Takita T, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of peanut skin and
its fractions: A case record of rats fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Biosci
Biotechnol Biochem 2009;73:205-8.
4. Lim TK. Edible Medicinal and Non-medicinal Plants: Fruits. Vol. 2.
Netherlands: Springer; 2012. p. 513-540.
5. Nepote V, Grosso NR, Guzman CA. Optimization of extraction of
phenolic antioxidants from peanut skins. J Sci Food Agric 2005;85:33-8.
6. Sarker S, Latif Z, Gray A. Natural Products Isolation. Totowa: Humana
7. Ballard TS, Mallikarjunan P, Zhou K, O’Keefe S. Microwave-assisted
extraction of phenolic antioxidant compounds from peanut skins. Food
8. Hoffmann J, Nüchter M, Ondruschka B, Wasserscheid P. Ionic liquids
and their heating behaviour during microwave irradiation a state of the
art report and challenge to assessment. Green Chem 2003;5:296-9.
9. Ayuningtyas IN, Rahmawati M, Sutriyo, Mun’im A. Optimization
of ionic liquid-based microwave assisted extraction to obtain transresveratrol
from Gnetum gnemon. J Young Pharm 2017;9:446-51.
10. Du F, Xiao X, Li G. Application of ionic liquids in the microwaveassisted
extraction of trans-resveratrol from rhizoma polygoni
cuspidati. J Chromatogr A 2007;1140:56-62.
11. Bharthare P, Preeti S, Singh P, Archana T. Peanut shell as renewable
energy source and their utility in production of ethanol. Int J Adv Res
12. Li MF, Fan YM, Xu F, Sun RC, Zhang XL. Cold sodium hydroxide/
urea based pretreatment of bamboo for bioethanol production:
Characterization of the cellulose rich fraction. Ind Crop Prod
13. García A, Rodríguez-Juan E, Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G, Rios JJ, Fernández-
Bolaños J. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by
deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Food Chem 2016;197:554-61.
14. Cvjetko Bubalo M, ?urko N, Tomaševi? M, Kova?evi? Gani? K,
Radoj?i? Redovnikovi? I. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by
Fig. 2: (a) Chromatogram profiles of the extracts obtained using (a) ionic liquid-microwave-assisted extraction (IL-MAE) and (b) IL-MAE
with urea pre-treatment using deep eutectic solvents. Food Chem 2016;200:159-66.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.