MICROENCAPSULATION OPTIMIZATION OF PROPOLIS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM TETRAGONULA SPP USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

  • DIAH KARTIKA PRATAMI Lab of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pancasila University, Jakarta, 12640, Indonesia
  • ABDUL MUN’IM Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia
  • HERI HERMANSYAH Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia
  • MISRI GOZAN Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia, Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia
  • MUHAMAD SAHLAN Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia, Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, 16424, Indonesia

Abstract

Objective: This research aimed to encapsulate the propolis through spray drying to overcome problematic handling properties of propolis and to optimize the microencapsulation by using response surface methodology (RSM).


Methods: The propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) was microencapsulated by spray drying with maltodextrin and gum arabic. RSM was applied for the optimization of microencapsulation efficiency, yield, moisture content, solubility in water, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity of spray-dried propolis (SDP) microcapsules.


Results: The highest process efficiency reached a microencapsulation yield of 75.35%. The highest solubility of SDP in water was 91.47%, with a moisture content of 0.96%. SDP exhibiting the highest TPC of 307.325 mg GAE/g, with a microencapsulation efficiency of 81.48%. Ferric reducing antioxidant power analysis showed its highest antioxidant activity with a low EC50 19.12 ug/ml with DPPH analysis, and a high reducing power capacity of 314.64 mg GAE/g.


Conclusion: Microencapsulation optimization of propolis ethanolic extract from Tetragonula spp. using RSM indicated that SDP with 1:2 ratios of the microwall to core (propolis), inlet temperature at 115 °C, and flow rate 20% represented the optimum conditions. Microencapsulation has successes improved physical appearance and the solubility index and protected and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis in optimum condition by using spray drying.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Microencapsulation, Propolis, Response surface methodology, Spray-drying, Tetragonula spp

References

1. Bankova V. Chemical diversity of propolis and the problem of standardization. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;100:114–7.
2. Bankova V, Castro S De, Marcucci M. Propolis: recent advances in chemistry and plant origin. Apidologie 2000;31:3–15.
3. Simone Finstrom M, Spivak M. Propolis and bee health: the natural history and significance of resin use by honey bees. Apidologie 2010;41:295–311.
4. Huang S, Zhang CP, Wang K, Li GQ, Hu FL. Recent advances in the chemical composition of propolis. Molecules 2014;19:19610–32.
5. Iqbal M, Fan T, Watson D, Alenezi S, Saleh K, Sahlan M. Preliminary studies?: the potential anti-angiogenic activities of two Sulawesi Island (Indonesia) propolis and their chemical characterization. Heliyon 2019;5:e01978.
6. Mahadewi AG, Christina D, Hermansyah H, Wijanarko A, Farida S, Adawiyah R, et al. Selection of discrimination marker from various propolis for mapping and identify anti-Candida albicans activity. AIP Conf Proc 2018;1933. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5023939
7. Miyata R, Sahlan M, Ishikawa Y, Hashimoto H, Honda S, Kumazawa S. Propolis components from Stingless bees collected on South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and their xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. J Nat Prod 2019;82:205–10.
8. Sahlan M, Mandala DK, Pratami DK, Adawiyah R, Wijarnako A, Lischer K, et al. Exploration of the antifungal potential of Indonesian propolis from Tetragonula biroi bee on Candida sp. and Cryptococcus neoformans. Evergr J 2020;7:118–25.
9. Mahadewi AG, Christina D, Hermansyah H, Wijanarko A, Farida S, Adawiyah R, et al. Selection of discrimination marker from various propolis for mapping and identify anti-Candida albicans activity. In: AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing; 2018. p. 20005.
10. Rahmi S, Sarwono AT, Soekanto SA. Effect of propolis honey candy consumption on the activity of lactoperoxidase in stimulated saliva. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:134–6.
11. Sahlan M, Devina A, Pratami DK, Situmorang H, Farida S, Munim A, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of Tetragronula species from Indonesia. Saudi J Biol Sci 2018;26:1531–8.
12. Pratami DK, Mun A, Sundowo A, Sahlan M, Pratami DK, Mun A. Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of propolis ethanolic extract from Tetragonula bee. Pharmacogn J 2018;10:73–80.
13. Da Silva FC, Da Fonseca CR, De Alencar. Assessment of production efficiency, physicochemical properties and storage stability of spray-dried propolis, a natural food additive, using gum Arabic and OSA starch-based carrier systems. Food Bioprod Process 2013;91:28–36.
14. Busch VM, Pereyra Gonzalez A, Segatin N, Santagapita PR, Poklar Ulrih N, Buera MP. Propolis encapsulation by spray drying: characterization and stability. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2017;75:227–35.
15. Biswal I, Dinda A, Das D, Si S, Chowdary KA. Encapsulation protocol for highly hydrophilic drug using nonbiodegradable polymer. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:256-9.
16. Pratami DK, MunIm A, Yohda M, Hermansyah H, Gozan M, Putri YRP, et al. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of spray-dried microcapsules propolis from Tetragonula species. AIP Conf Proc 2019;2085. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5095018
17. LeClair DA, Cranston ED, Xing Z, Thompson MR. Optimization of spray drying conditions for yield, particle size and biological activity of thermally stable viral vectors. Pharm Res 2016;33:2763–76.
18. Sahlan M, Supardi T. Encapsulation of Indonesian propolis by casein micelle. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2013;4:297–305.
19. Marquiafavel FS, Nascimento AP, Barud H da S, Marquele Oliveira F, De-Freitas LAP, Bastos JK, et al. Development and characterization of a novel standardized propolis dry extract obtained by factorial design with high artepillin C content. J Pharm Technol Drug Res 2015;4:1.
20. Ahmad I, Yanuar A, Mulia K, Munim A. Optimization of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic content from Peperomia pellucida (L) Kunth using response surface methodology. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017;7:660–5.
21. Bolanos De La Torre AAS, Henderson T, Nigam PS, Owusu Apenten RK. A universally calibrated microplate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for foods and applications to Manuka honey. Food Chem 2015;174:119–23.
22. Vidovic SS, Vladic JZ, Vastag ZG, Zekovic ZP, Popovic LM. Maltodextrin as a carrier of health benefit compounds in Satureja montana dry powder extract obtained by spray drying technique. Powder Technol 2014;258:209–15.
23. Sahin Nadeem H, Dinçer C, Torun M, Topuz A, Ozdemir F. Influence of inlet air temperature and carrier material on the production of instant soluble sage (Salvia fruticosa Miller) by spray drying. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2013;52:31–8.
24. Wang W, Dufour C, Zhou W. Impacts of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of soy sauce powders using maltodextrin as auxiliary drying carrier. CYTA J Food 2015;13:548–55.
25. Kuck LS, Norena CPZ. Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum Arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents. Food Chem 2016;194:569–76.
26. Akhavan Mahdavi S, Jafari SM, Assadpoor E, Dehnad D. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin. Int J Biol Macromol 2016;85:379–85.
27. Jyothi NVN, Prasanna PM, Sakarkar SN, Prabha KS, Ramaiah PS, Srawan GY. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency. J Microencapsul 2010;27:187–97.
28. Onbas R, Kazan A, Nalbantsoy A, Yesil Celiktas O. Cytotoxic and nitric oxide inhibition activities of propolis extract along with microencapsulation by complex coacervation. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2016;71:286–93.
29. Kha TC, Nguyen MH, Roach PD, Stathopoulos CE. Microencapsulation of Gac oil: optimisation of spray drying conditions using response surface methodology. Powder Technol 2014;264:298–309.
30. Caroline FC, Marconi GSP, Dutra AI, Zaratini VF, Maurício de AJ. Influence of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties of blackberry powder produced by spray drying. Int J Food Sci Technol 2012;47:1237–45.
31. Surini S, Azzahrah FU, Ramadon D. Microencapsulation of grape seed oil (Vitis vinifera L.) with gum arabic as a coating polymer by crosslinking emulsification method. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:194–8.
32. Gharsallaoui A, Chambin O. Applications of spray-drying in microencapsulation of food ingredients: an overview. Food Res Int 2007;40:1107–21.
33. Caliskan G, Nur Dirim S. The effects of the different drying conditions and the amounts of maltodextrin addition during spray drying of sumac extract. Food Bioprod Process 2013;91:539–48.
34. Souza JPB, Tacon LA, Correia CC, Bastos JK, Freitas LAP. Spray-dried propolis extract, II: Prenylated components of green propolis. Pharmazie 2007;62:488–92.
35. Machado BAS, Silva RPD, Barreto GDA, Costa SS, Da Silva DF, Brandão HN, et al. Chemical composition and biological activity of extracts obtained by supercritical extraction and ethanolic extraction of brown, green and red propolis derived from different geographic regions in Brazil. PLoS One 2016;11:1–26.
Statistics
89 Views | 51 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
PRATAMI, D. K., MUN’IM, A., HERMANSYAH, H., GOZAN, M., & SAHLAN, M. (2020). MICROENCAPSULATION OPTIMIZATION OF PROPOLIS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM TETRAGONULA SPP USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(4), 197-206. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020v12i4.37808
Section
Original Article(s)