SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS BASED ON SIMPLICIA AND ETHYL ACETATE FRACTIONS OF STAR FRUIT LEAVES (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.)

  • DIAN FITRIANI Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • BERNA ELYA Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • ARIKA NOVIANI Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a plant with numerous benefits, including anti-skin inflammation properties. The aim of the present
study was to evaluate simplicia and ethyl acetate fractions of star fruit leaves collected from three regions in Indonesia, including Depok, Subang, and
Sukabumi, and to characterize specific and non-specific parameters.
Methods: Extraction was performed through maceration. Next, liquid partitioning was performed to obtain ethyl acetate fractions. Chromatograms
for simplicia and ethyl acetate fractions for samples from three regions were obtained using chloroform: methanol:water (8:2:0.5) with apigenin as
the standard.
Results: The yield of the ethyl acetate fraction from the star fruit leaves was 4.2–6.2%. Water content, total ash content, and acid-soluble ash contents
were 4.79%, 1.55%, and 0.064%, respectively, and total flavonoid levels were 14.63–22.14 mg QE/g of a fraction. The water-soluble and ethanol-soluble
extracts were 14.32% and 9.69%, respectively, and total flavonoid contents were 0.12–0.18 mg QE/g simplicia. In addition, drying losses, ash content,
and acid-soluble ash content were 9.70%, 7.14%, and 0.31%, respectively. The results of solvent residues and heavy metal contaminant (Hg, Pb, Cd,
and As) tests indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction did not contain solvent residue or heavy metal contamination.
Conclusion: The specific and non-specific parameters based on simplicia and ethyl acetate fractions from star fruit leaves meet the requirement.

Keywords: Apigenin, Averrhoa carambola, Specific parameters, Non-specific parameters

References

1. Ahmad AR, Juwita J, Daniya SA, Malik A. Assay of total phenolics and
flavonoids fruit and leaf methanol extract patikala (Etlingera elatior
Jack). Pharm Sci Res 2015;2:1-10.
2. Agbor GA, Vinson JA, Donnelly PE. Folin-ciocalteu reagent for
polyphenolic assay. Int J Food Sci Nutr Diet 2014;3:147-56.
3. Andersen M, Markham KR. In: The Flavonoids. New York: Taylor and
Francis Group; 2006. p. 2006
4. Araho D, Miyokoshi M, Chou WH, Kambara T, Mizutani KT. A new
flavone C-glycosides from the leaves of averrhoa carambola. Nat Med
2005;59:113-6.
5. Azizah D, Kumulowati E, Faramayuda F. Flavonoid content
determination method of AlCl3. In: Methanol Extracts Fruit Leather
Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2014;2:45-9.
6. Bhaigyabati T, Devi P, Bag G. Total flavonoids content and antioxidant
activity of aqueous extract of Rhizome three hedychium species of
Manipur valley. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2014;5:154-9.
7. Artificial Groundwater Books; 2018. Available from: http://www.kelair.
bppt.go.id/Publikasi/BukuAir TanahBuatan/Bab2-WilayahDepok.pdf.
8. Cabrini DA, Moresco HH, Imazu P, da Silva CD, Pietrovski EF,
MendesDA, et al. Analysis of the potential topical anti-inflammatory
activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in Mice. Evid Based Complement
Alternat Med 2011;2011:908059.
9. Cicco N, Lanorte M, Paraggio M, Viggiano M, Lattanzio V.
A reproducible, rapid and inexpensive Folin-Ciocalteu micro-methods
in determining phenolics of the methanol plant extracts. Microchemical
J 2011;91:107-10.
10. Dasgupta P, Chakraborty N, Bala NN. Averrhoa carambola: An update
review. Int J Pharm Res Rev 2013;2:58.
11. Desmiaty Y, Ratnawati J, Andini P. Determination of number of total
flavonoids extract ethanol leaves red fruit (dustry.). Colorimetric
Complement 2013;1:1-8.
12. Dighe V, Dhanashri M, Neeta S. High performance liquid
chromatographic method for quantization of apigenin from dried root
powder of Gmelina arborea Linn. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2011;2:742-9.
13. Doughari JH. Phytochemicals: Extraction Methods, Basic Structures
and Modes of Action as Chemotherapeutic Potential Agents. ???:
INTECH; 2012. p. 2-22.
14. Elya B, Djajadisastra J. Lipoxygenase inhibitory assay of Averrhoa
carambola L. leaves extract. Chemtech Int J Res 2014;10:342-7.
15. Hanani E, Elya B. Crude standarisai and handeleum leaf extract. FMIPA
Univ Indonesia 2000;1:1-3.
16. Harborne JB. In: Padmawinata K, Soediro I, Niksolihin S. The
Phytochemicals Method Wizard Modern Way. Bandung: ITB
Publishers; 1987.
17. Harmita H. Physicochemical Analysis: Potentiometric and
Spectroscopy. Vol. 1. Jakarta: EGC Medical Books; 2014. p. 15-36.
18. Lim T. Edible Medicinal and Non-medicinal Plants. Dordrecht:
Springer; 2012. p. 454-6.
19. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Indonesian
Pharmacopoeia. 4th ed. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of
Indonesia; 1995.
20. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Materia Medika
Indonesia. Vol. 6. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of
Indonesia; 1995.
21. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Parameter General
Standard Extracts Plant Medicine. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the
Republic of Indonesia; 2000.
22. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Supplements II,
Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the
Republic of Indonesia; 2011.
23. Moresco HH, Queiroz GS, Pizzolatti MG, Brighente IM. Chemical
constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of
Averrhoa carambola leaves. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2012;22:319-24.
24. Murdopo. Traditional Herbal Medicines; 2014. Available from: http://
www.djpen.kemendag.go.id/app_ frontend/admin/docs/publication/
4651421058307.pdf.
25. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. Hazardous
Substance Fact Sheet: Ethyl Acetate; 2002. Available from: http://
www.nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0841.pdf. [Last accessed
on 2018 Jan].
26. Pristiadi A. Comparative study of natural preservative antioxidant
activity formula extract kecombrang (Nicolaia speciosa Horan) and
pattern chromatography separation plant extract portions kecombrang.
J Innovat Tech Agroind 2012;1:2-5.
27. Stratil P, Klejdus B, Kubán V. Determination of phenolic compounds and
their antioxidant activity in fruits and cereals. Talanta 2007;71:1741-51.
28. Sunarti S, Rugayah T, Tihurua E. Anatomical Studies Leaf Types
Averrhoa in Indonesia to Reinforce the Taxonomic Status. Bogor-based
Botany Division: Research Center for Biology. Cibinong: LIPI; 2008.
29. Official Government Portal Website Subang District; 2018. Available
from: https://www.subang.go.id/page/10/Topografi.html.
30. Yunarto N, Sulistyaningrum N. Quantitative analysis of bioactive
compounds in extract and fraction of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.)
leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Indones Pharm
J 2014;7:26-33.
31. Zhou X, Wang F, Zhou R, Song X, Xie M. Apigenin: A current review
on its beneficial biological activities. J Food Biochem 2017;41:e12376.
Statistics
57 Views | 60 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
FITRIANI, D., ELYA, B., & NOVIANI, A. (2020). SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC PARAMETERS BASED ON SIMPLICIA AND ETHYL ACETATE FRACTIONS OF STAR FRUIT LEAVES (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.). International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(1), 112-115. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF022
Section
Original Article(s)