• SUTRIYO SUTRIYO Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • RADITYA ISWANDANA Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
  • MARINA DWI HAFSHARI Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia


Objective: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been developed as a promising effective site-specific drug to increase drug efficacy and reduce potential
side effects. However, AuNPs are unstable because they easily aggregate. This study aims to produce stable resveratrol (RSV)-conjugated AuNPs using
polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).
Methods: AuNPs were synthesized using the Turkevich method, which involves the reduction of chloroauric acid with sodium citrate as a reductor.
AuNPs were then modified with PVA as a stabilizing agent and conjugated with RSV as a drug model in the carrier system. The formed conjugates were
characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analysis, and high-performance
liquid chromatography. Furthermore, stability tests were performed in various media (2% bovine serum albumin [BSA], 1% cysteine, phosphatebuffered
saline [PBS] pH 4, PBS pH 7.4, and 0.9% NaCl) for 28 days.
Results: RSV–AuNPs–PVA had a particle size of 78.75 nm, with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.356, zeta potential of −36.1 mV, and highest entrapment
efficiency of 78.1%±0.7. RSV–AuNPs without PVA stabilization had a particle size of 51.97 nm, with PDI of 0.694 and zeta potential of −24.6 mV. The
results of the stability tests demonstrated that RSV–AuNPs–PVA was stable in 2% BSA, PBS pH 7.4, PBS pH 4, and NaCl 0.9% and were unstable in 1%
cysteine. RSV–AuNPs without PVA were stable in 2% BSA and PBS pH 7.4 and unstable in 1% cysteine, PBS pH 4, and 0.9% NaCl.
Conclusion: PVA can improve the physical stability of RSV-AuNPs conjugates.

Keywords: Conjugate, Gold nanoparticles, Polyvinyl alcohol, Resveratrol, Stability


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