PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND FORMULATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES LOTION FROM MULBERRY ROOTS (MORUS ALBA L.)

  • MUHAMAD WILDAN NUGRAHA Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • RADITYA ISWANDANA Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • MAHDI JUFRI Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia

Abstract

Objective: Tween 80 has been used as a solvent for the extraction of phenolic compounds because this surfactant has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
properties. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been developed to improve penetration through the skin layer. We investigated the efficacy of using
the microwave-assisted micellar extraction (MAME) approach for extracting oxyresveratrol from Morus alba roots and also to develop an SLN lotion.
Methods: The M. alba roots were extracted with Tween 80 in a microwave for 18 min, and the extract was used to develop SLN with different
concentrations of glyceryl monostearate. The SLNs from M. alba root extracts were prepared by a high-speed homogenization technique (25,000 rpm
for 15 min). The SLNs produced were characterized as per particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. The SLNs with the best
characteristics were used to formulate a lotion using a high-pressure homogenizer.
Results: Extraction using MAME showed improved extraction efficiency. The oxyresveratrol concentration from the extract was 2.77%. The SLN with
2.5% glyceryl monostearate showed the optimum result, with a particle size of 130.20 nm, a PDI of 0.278, and a zeta potential of −21.8 mV. The SLN
lotion exhibited a particle size of 285.9 nm and a PDI of 0.360. The SLN lotion also had good penetration, with a flux of 4.70 μg cm−2/h.
Conclusion: MAME is an efficient method for extracting oxyresveratrol from M. alba roots. The SLN with 2.5% glyceryl monostearate exhibited the
optimum characteristics, and the SLN lotion showed good characteristics, including skin penetration.

Keywords: Microwave-assisted micellar extraction, Mulberry (Morus alba) roots,, Solid lipid nanoparticle

References

1. Sinko PJ. Martin’s Physical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.
5th ed. USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006.
2. McClements DJ, Rao J. Food-grade nanoemulsions: Formulation,
fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential
toxicity. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2011;51:285-330.
3. Raphael AP, Garrastazu G, Sonvico F, Prow TW. Formulation design
for topical drug and nanoparticle treatment of skin disease. Ther Deliv
2015;6:197-216.
4. Ramadon D, Mun’im A. Utilization of nanotechnology in new drug
delivery systems for natural material products. J Ilmu Kefarmasian
Indones 2016;14:118-27.
5. Hutasoit R, Tarigan A, Ginting SP. Effect of Stem Cuttings Diameter
on Seedling Growth in Four Species of Mulberry Plants (Morus sp.).
Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner; 2013. p. 461-7.
6. Faizatun E, Anwar E, Djajadisasra J, Mardliyati E. The study of
antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of extract from mulberry root
(Morus alba L.). J Pharm Sci Res 2017;9:2004-8.
7. Kim YM, Yun J, Lee CK, Lee H, Min KR, Kim Y. Oxyresveratrol
and hydroxystilbene compounds. Inhibitory effect on tyrosinase and
mechanism of action. J Biol Chem 2002;277:16340-4.
8. Faizatun F, Asto SD. In vitro determination of sun protection factors
on ethanol extract and nanostructured lipid carrier-based gel extract of
mulberry root (Morus alba L.). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:138-40.
9. Hosseinzadeh R, Khorsandi K, Hemmaty S. Study of the effect of
surfactants on extraction and determination of polyphenolic compounds
and antioxidant capacity of fruits extracts. PLoS One 2013;8:e57353.
10. Sangsen Y, Likhitwitayawuid K, Sritularak B, Wiwattanawongsa K,
Wiwattanapatapee R. Novel solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of
oxyresveratrol: Effect of the formulation parameters on the physicochemical
properties and in vitro release. Int J Med Sci Eng 2013;7:873-80.
11. Mappamasing F, Anwar E, Mun’im A. Formulation, characterization
and penetration test of in vitro resveratrol solid lipid nanoparticles in
topical cream. J Ilmu Kefarmasian Indones 2015;13:137-44.
12. Zulkarnain AK, Susanti M, Lathifa AN. The physical stability of lotion
O/W and W/O from sphalerite macrocarpa fruit extract as sunscreen
and primary irritation test on rabbit primer. Trad Med J 2013;18:141-50.
13. Ayinampudi SR, Wang Y, Avula B, Smillie TJ, Khan IA. Quantitative
analysis of oxyresveratrol in different plant parts of Morus species and
related genera by HPTLC and HPLC. J Planar Chromatogr 2011;24:125-9.
14. Destandau E, Thomas M, Claire E. Microwave-Assisted Extraction. In:
Natural Product Extraction: Principles and Applications. Ch. 4. France:
Royal Society of Chemistry; 2013.
15. Chemat FG. Microwave-Assisted Extraction for Bioactive Compounds:
Theory and Practice. New York: Springer; 2013.
16. Rosen MJ. Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ,
USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 2004.
17. Avadi MR, Sadeghi AM, Mohammadpour N, Abedin S, Atyabi F,
Dinarvand R, et al. Preparation and characterization of insulin
nanoparticles using chitosan and Arabic gum with ionic gelation
method. Nanomedicine 2010;6:58-63.
18. Bueschelger HG. Emulsifier in Food Technology. New Delhi, India:
Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2004.
19. Shah KA, Date AA, Joshi MD, Patravale VB. Solid lipid nanoparticles
(SLN) of tretinoin: Potential in topical delivery. Int J Pharm
2007;345:163-71.
20. Lv Q, Yu A, Xi Y, Li H, Song Z, Cui J, et al. Development and evaluation
of penciclovir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery. Int J
Pharm 2009;372:191-8.
21. Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL. Theory and Practice of Industrial
Pharmacy 1. (Siti Suyatmi, Translator). Jakarta: UI-Press; 1994. p. 1081.
22. El-Ishaq A, Obirinakem S. Effect of temperature and storage on
Vitamin C content in fruits juice. Int J Chem Biomol Sci 2015;1:17-21.
23. Martin A, Swarbrick J, Cammarata A. Physical Pharmacy. 3rd ed. Jilid
II. (Joshita Djajadisastra, Translator). Jakarta: UI-Press; 1993. p. 939-
43, 1077, 1084-5, 1095.
24. Mitsui T. New Cosmetic Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV;
1998.
25. Rowe R, Sheskey P, Quinn M. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients.
6th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2009.
26. Wissing S, Lippacher A, Müller R. Investigations on the occlusive
properties of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). J Cosmet Sci
2001;52:313-24.
27. Fadhila M, Mun’im A, Jufri M. A preparation, characterization, and
in vitro skin penetration of Morus alba root extract nanoemulsion.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:292-6.
Statistics
39 Views | 34 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
NUGRAHA, M. W., ISWANDANA, R., & JUFRI, M. (2020). PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND FORMULATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES LOTION FROM MULBERRY ROOTS (MORUS ALBA L.). International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(1), 182-186. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF041
Section
Original Article(s)