• MUHAMAD WILDAN NUGRAHA Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • RADITYA ISWANDANA Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • MAHDI JUFRI Laboratory of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Development, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia


Objective: Tween 80 has been used as a solvent for the extraction of phenolic compounds because this surfactant has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
properties. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been developed to improve penetration through the skin layer. We investigated the efficacy of using
the microwave-assisted micellar extraction (MAME) approach for extracting oxyresveratrol from Morus alba roots and also to develop an SLN lotion.
Methods: The M. alba roots were extracted with Tween 80 in a microwave for 18 min, and the extract was used to develop SLN with different
concentrations of glyceryl monostearate. The SLNs from M. alba root extracts were prepared by a high-speed homogenization technique (25,000 rpm
for 15 min). The SLNs produced were characterized as per particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. The SLNs with the best
characteristics were used to formulate a lotion using a high-pressure homogenizer.
Results: Extraction using MAME showed improved extraction efficiency. The oxyresveratrol concentration from the extract was 2.77%. The SLN with
2.5% glyceryl monostearate showed the optimum result, with a particle size of 130.20 nm, a PDI of 0.278, and a zeta potential of −21.8 mV. The SLN
lotion exhibited a particle size of 285.9 nm and a PDI of 0.360. The SLN lotion also had good penetration, with a flux of 4.70 μg cm−2/h.
Conclusion: MAME is an efficient method for extracting oxyresveratrol from M. alba roots. The SLN with 2.5% glyceryl monostearate exhibited the
optimum characteristics, and the SLN lotion showed good characteristics, including skin penetration.

Keywords: Microwave-assisted micellar extraction, Mulberry (Morus alba) roots,, Solid lipid nanoparticle


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