• Mahdi Jufri Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Muthaharrah . . Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Elsa Humairah Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • Ernie Hermawati Purwaningsih Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.


Objective: Formulation, antibacterial activity, and stability tests of niosomal gels containing betel leaf (Piper betle L.) essential oil as an anti-acne
treatment were carried out. Niosome vesicular carriers provide drug delivery through the topical and transdermal routes. The aim of creating the
niosome preparation was to increase the transfollicular penetration and improve the stability of the gel.
Materials and Methods: Betel leaf essential oil extraction was performed using the steam distillation method, and essential oil compound
identification was completed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The niosome formulations were generated with two cholesterol–
surfactant amount ratios, specifically, 1:1 (F1) and 1:2 (F2; w/w). The niosomes were evaluated, including the entrapment efficiency test, using
ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry; particle size analysis was performed using a particle size analyzer; and the vesicle morphology test was
conducted using transmission electron microscopy. The niosomes were made into a gel using 0.5% carbopol 940 as the gelling agent. The niosome
gels were evaluated for their organoleptic properties, pH, viscosity, antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, and stability for 12 weeks
at three different storage temperatures, namely, low temperature (4±2°C), room temperature (28±2°C), and high temperature (40±2°C).
Results: The test results showed that the F2 niosome gel was more stable than the F1 gel was, while the antibacterial activities of the F1 and F2
niosome gels did not differ significantly.
Conclusion: The niosomal gel preparations' inhibition of the growth of P. acnes bacteria was decreased compared with that of the essential oils.

Keywords: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, Niosomes, Propionibacterium acnes, Particle size analysis, Transmission electron microscopy.


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Fig. 4: pH values of the F2 niosome gel over 12 weeks
Fig. 2: Morphology niosome F1 magnification (a) 5000, (b) 10,000
(c) 20,000 (d) 40,000 times
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How to Cite
Jufri, M., ., M. ., Humairah, E., & Purwaningsih, E. H. (2017). STABILITY OF ANTI-ACNE NIOSOME GELS CONTAINING BETEL LEAF (PIPER BETLE L.) ESSENTIAL OIL. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 9, 130-134.
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