Objective: The aim of our study was to establish the content of some primary metabolites, such as amino acids in Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica. The lack of experimental data induced us to determine these compounds.

Materials and Methods: Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica leaves were selected as the objects of the study. The amino acids of the studied species’ raw material were determined by the HPLC method.

Results: The HPLC method identified in Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica leaves fifteen and sixteen free amino acids respectively. Among the free amino acids L-histidine was presented in Crambe cordifolia leaves in the greatest amount, its content was 12.19 µg/mg. The content of free L-arginine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine was the greatest in Crambe koktebelica leaves, it was 2.23 µg/mg, 2.04 µg/mg, 1.74 µg/mg, 1.50 µg/mg respectively. The content of bound L-glutamic acid, Glycine, L-arginine, L-leucine was the highest in Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica leaves.

Conclusion: The results of the study showed that Crambe cordifolia and Crambe koktebelica can be considered as a source of highly digestible amino acids that can be used to treat some diseases.

Keywords: Crambe cordifolia, Crambe koktebelica, amino acids, HPLC, leaves


1. Stoiko L, Kurylo K. Development of optimal technology of alcohol extract Centaurium erythraea rafn. Herb. Arch Balk Med Union 2018;53(4):523-8.
2. Darzuli N, Budniak L, Hroshovyi T. Selected excipients in oral solid dosage form with dry extract of Pyrola rotundifolia L. IJAP 2019;11(6):210-6.
3. Huzio N, Grytsyk A, Slobodianiuk L. Determination of carbohydrates in Agrimonia eupatoria L. herb. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science 2020;6(28):35-40.
4. Slobodianiuk L, Budniak L, Marchyshyn S, Basaraba R. Investigation of the hepatoprotective effect of the common cat’s foot herb dry extract. Pharmacologyonline 2020;3:310-18.
5. Ahmed N, Mahmood A, Tahir SS, Bano A, Malik RN, Hassan S, et al. Ethnomedicinal knowledge and relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants of Cholistan desert, Punjab Province, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;155:1263-75.
6. Sevastre B, Sárpataki O, Stan RL, Taulescu M, Sevastre-Berghian AC, Olah NK, et al. Anticancer activity of euonymus europaeus fruits extract on human melanoma cells. Farmacia 2017;65:56-62.
7. Haidan Y, Qianqian M, Li Y, Guangchun P. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products. Molecules 2016;21:559.
8. Budniak L, Vasenda M, Marchyshyn S, Kurylo K Determination of the optimum extraction regime of reducing compounds and flavonoids of Primula denticulata Smith leaves by a dispersion analysis. Pharmacia 2020;67(4):373-8.
9. Francisco-Ortega J, Fuertes-Aguilar J, Gomez-Campo C, Santos-Guerra A, Jansen RK. Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Phylogeny of Crambe L. (Brassicaceae): Molecular Data Reveal Two Old World Disjunctions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1999;11:361-80.
10. Prakhova TYa. New unconventional oilseed — Abyssinian Crambe. J Bulletin of ASAU 2013;8:8-10.
11. Pushkarova NO, Kalista MS, Kharkhota MA, Rakhmetov DB, Kuchuk MV. Biotechnological approaches for conservation of the endangered species Crambe koktebelica (Junge) N. Busch and effect of aseptic in vitro cultivation on its biochemical properties. Biotechnologia acta 2016;9:19-27.
12. Prina A. Taxonomic review of the genus "Crambe" sect. "Crambe" (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae). Ann Jard Bot Madr 2009;66:7-24.
13. Kalista MS. Underutilized medicinal species of Crambe L. of the flora of Ukraine. Agrobiodiversity for improving nutrition, health and life quality 2017;1:216-20.
14. Bukhari SM, Simic N, Siddiqui HL, Ahmad VU. Determination of antioxidant activity of Crambe cordifolia. World App Sci J 2013;22:1561-65.
15. Lovatto NM, Goulart FR, Loureiro BB, Speroni CS, Bender ABB, Giacomini SJ, et al. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) protein concentrates: production methods and nutritional properties for use in fish feed. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 2017;89:2495-2504.
16. Zorn K, Oroz-Guinea I, Bornscheuer UT. Strategies for enriching erucic acid from Crambe abyssinica oil by improved Candida antarctica lipase A variants. Process Biochemistry 2019;79:65-73.
17. Razavi SM, Nejad-Ebrahimi S. Chemical composition, allelopatic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of Crambe orientalis L. from Iran. Natural product research 2009;23:1492-98.
18. Aguinagalde I, Del Pero Martinez M. The occurrence of acylated flavonol glycosides in the cruciferae. Phytochemistry 1980;21:2875-8.
19. Rashid MA, Akhtar MN, Ashraf A, Nazir S, Ijaz A, Noradila AO, et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of Crambe cordifolia roots. Farmacia 2018;66:165-71.
20. Marchyshyn S, Slobodianiuk L, Budniak L, Skrynchuk O. Analysis of carboxylic acids of Crambe cordifolia Steven. Pharmacia 2021;68(1). 15-21.
21. Husak L, Dakhym I, Marchyshyn S, Nakonechna S. Determination of sugars and fructans content in Stachys sieboldii. IJGP 2018;12:70-4.
22. Budniak L, Slobodianiuk L, Marchyshyn S, Klepach P, Honcharuk Ya. Determination of carbohydrates content in Gentiana cruciata L. by GC/MS method. IJAP 2021;13(1):124-8.
23. Marchyshyn S, Budniak L, Slobodianiuk L, Ivasiuk I. Determination of carbohydrates and fructans content in Cyperus esculentus L. Pharmacia 2021;68(1):211-6.
24. Vons B, Tryhubchak O, Grochovuy T, Chubka M, Bihunyak V. Research of powders of the cryolyophilized xenoderm of porcine skin. IJGP 2018;12(3):657-64.
25. Slobodianiuk L, Budniak L, Marchyshyn S, Basaraba R. Determination of amino acids and sugars content in Antennaria dioica Gaertn. IJAP 2019;11:39-43.
26. Hanczkó R, Jámbor A, Perl A, Molnár-Perl I. Advances in the ophthalaldehyde derivatizations: Comeback to the o-phthalaldehydeethanethiol reagent. J Chromatogr A 2007;1163:25-42.
27. Jambor A, Molnár-Perl I. Amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride literature overview and further study. J Chromatogr A 2009;1216:3064-77.
28. Slobodianiuk L, Budniak L, Marchyshyn S, Sinichenko A, Demydiak O. Determination of Amino Acids of Cultivated Species of the Genus Primula L. Biointerface Res Appl Chem 2021;11:8969-77.
29. Budniak L, Slobodianiuk L, Marchyshyn S, Demydiak O. Determination of Arnica foliosa Nutt. fatty acids content by GC/MS method. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science 2020;28(6):14-18.
30. Budniak L, Slobodianiuk L, Marchyshyn S, Kostyshyn L, Horoshko O. Determination of composition of fatty acids in Saponaria officinalis L. ScienceRise: Pharmaceutical Science 2021;29(1):25-30.
31. Ingle RA. Histidine biosynthesis. ArabidopsisBook, 2011.
32. Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins. In: Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P, editors. Food Chem. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2009.
33. Moro J, Tome D, Schmidely P, Demersay TC, Azzout-Marniche D. Histidine: A Systematic Review on Metabolism and Physiological Effects in Human and Different Animal Species. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1414.
34. Kessler AT, Raja A. Biochemistry, Histidine. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
35. Holecek M. Histidine in Health and Disease: Metabolism, Physiological Importance, and Use as a Supplement. Nutrients. 2020;12(3):848.
36. Sudar-Milovanovic E, Obradovic M, Jovanovic A, et al. Benefits of L-Arginine on Cardiovascular System. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2016;16(2):94-103.
37. Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
38. Pahlavani N, Jafari M, Sadeghi O, Rezaei M, Rasad H, Rahdaret HA, et al. L-arginine supplementation and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in healthy men: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. F1000Research. 2017;3:306.
39. Kapalka GM. Practical resources for the mental health professional. Nutritional and herbal therapies for children and adolescents: A handbook for mental health clinicians. Elsevier Academic Press, 2010.
40. Liu Y, Xu Y, Ding D, Wen J, Zhu B, Zhang D. Genetic engineering of Escherichia coli to improve L-phenylalanine production. BMC Biotechnol. 2018;18(1):5.
41. Ding D, Liu Y, Xu Y, Zheng P, Li H, Zhang D, Sun J. Improving the Production of L-Phenylalanine by Identifying Key Enzymes Through Multi-Enzyme Reaction System in Vitro. Scientific Reports. 2016;6.
42. Sanchez S, Demain AL, Fermentation (industrial) | Production of Amino Acids. In: Batt CA, Tortorello ML, editors. Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. 2nd ed. Academic Press, 2014.
43. Dutta S, Ray S, Nagarajan K. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent. Saudi Pharm J. 2013;21(4): 337-43.
44. Perez-Torres I, María Zuniga-Munoz A, Guarner-Lans V. Beneficial effects of the amino acid glycine. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2017;17:15-32.
45. Duan Y, Li F, Li Y, Tang Y, Kong X, Feng Z, et al. The role of leucine and its metabolites in protein and energy metabolism. Amino Acids. 2016;48(1):41-51.
7 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Original Article(s)