DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER-BASED ANALYTICAL DEVICE FOR DETECTING DIAZEPAM IN URINE
Keywords:Paper-based analytical devices, Diazepam, Colorimetric, Detection method
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop Paper-based Analytical Devices (PADs) with colorimetric method as a presumptive test for detecting diazepam in urine
Methods: Colorimetric method was used as a principle of this study. PADs were fabricated with wax-printing methods. Chosen colorimetric reagent was tested for selectivity with hydromorphone and codeine; and sensitivity by measuring the absorbance with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. PADs were tested for its sensitivity and stability. The intensity of color developed on PADs are measured with ImageJ. The ability of PADs to detect diazepam in urine was simulated with testing spiked urine sample to the PADs
Results: Zimmermann gave the most obvious prominent color change from colorless to purple-red color out of the four reagents. PAD is selective to diazepam when tested with hydromorphone and codeine. PAD is sensitive with a cut-off concentration at 100 ppm. PAD can detect diazepam in urine with the highest recovery percent at 92.8%±4,6
Conclusion: It can be concluded that PAD is quite selective and sensitive to detect diazepam in urine and can be done easily and fast for onsite analysis
Karch SB. Drug abuse handbook. FL: CRC Press Press; 2020.
Puri P. Drug abuse: problem, management and prevention. New Delhi: Educreation Publishing; 2018.
Pusat informasi obat nasional (PIONAS). Benzodiazepin. 2015. Available from: http://pionas.pom.go.id/ioni/bab-4-sistem-saraf-pusat/41-hipnosis-dan-ansietas/412-ansietas/benzodiazepin. [Last accessed on 10 Jul 2021]
Tyszczuk K. Determination of diazepam, temazepam and oxazepam at the lead film electrode by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. Electroanalysis. 2010;22(17-18):1975-84. doi: 10.1002/elan.201000011.
NCBI 2020 National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Diazepam; 2020. Available from: https://pubchem. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/diazepam [Last accessed on 12 Oct 2020].
Musile G, Wang L, Bottoms J, Tagliaro F, McCord B. The development of paper microfluidic devices for presumptive drug detection. Anal Methods. 2015;7(19):8025-33. doi: 10.1039/C5AY01432H.
Khan WA, Naz N, Doger NA, Khan NA, Khan NA. Spectrophotometric determination of diazepam. J Chem Soc Pak. 2012;34(2):536-40.
Abduh Mutair A. Spectrophotometric determination of diazepam in pharmaceutical forms by ion-pairing with ferrithiocyanide complex. Sci J Anal Chem. 2016;4(4):52-8. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20160404.12.
Doctor EL, McCord B. Comparison of aggregating agents for the surface-enhanced Raman analysis of benzodiazepines. Analyst. 2013;138(20):5926-32. doi: 10.1039/c3an00669g, PMID 23928656.
Thangadurai S, Dhanalakshmi A, Kannan MVS. Separation and detection of certain benzodiazepines by thin-layer chromatography. Malays J Forensic Sci. 2013;4(1):47-53.
Dikran SB, Mohammed AK, Alassaf NA. Simple RP-HPLC method for estimation of furosemide, carbamazepine, diazepam, and carvedilol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Chem Mater Res. 2016;8(3):54-60.
Samanidou V, Kaltzi I, Kabir A, Furton KG. Simplifying sample preparation using fabric phase sorptive extraction technique for the determination of benzodiazepines in blood serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 2016;30(6):829-36. doi: 10.1002/bmc.3615, PMID 26378746.
Papoutsis II, Athanaselis SA, Nikolaou PD, Pistos CM, Spiliopoulou CA, Maravelias CP. Development and validation of an EI-GC-MS method for the determination of benzodiazepine drugs and their metabolites in blood: applications in clinical and forensic toxicology. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52(4):609-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2010.01.027, PMID 20172681.
Karlonas N, Padarauskas A, Ramanavicius A, Ramanaviciene A. Mixed-mode SPE for a multi-residue analysis of benzodiazepines in whole blood using rapid GC with negative-ion chemical ionization MS. J Sep Sci. 2013;36(8):1437-45. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201201069, PMID 23505213.
Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Butte MJ, Whitesides GM. Patterned paper as a platform for inexpensive, low-volume, portable bioassays. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007;46(8):1318-20. doi: 10.1002/anie.200603817, PMID 17211899.
Lisowski P, Zarzycki PK. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS): development, applications and future trends. Chromatographia. 2013;76:1201-14. doi: 10.1007/s10337-013-2413-y, PMID 24078738.
Jokerst JC, Adkins JA, Bisha B, Mentele MM, Goodridge LD, Henry CS. Development of a paper-based analytical device for colorimetric detection of select foodborne pathogens. Anal Chem. 2012;84(6):2900-7. doi: 10.1021/ac203466y, PMID 22320200.
Abdollahi-Aghdam AA, Majidi MR, Omidi Y. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) for fast and ultrasensitive sensing of biomarkers and monitoring of diseases. BioImpacts. 2018;8(4):237-40. doi: 10.15171/bi.2018.26, PMID 30397578.
Chaiyo S, Siangproh W, Apilux A, Chailapakul O. Highly selective and sensitive paper-based colorimetric sensor using thiosulfate catalytic etching of silver nanoplates for trace determination of copper ions. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;866:75-83. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2015.01.042, PMID 25732695.
Bansiwal A, Ram K, Dahake R. Paper-based microfluidic sensor devices for inorganic pollutants monitoring in water. In: Inorganic pollutants in water. India: Elsevier; 2020.
Han T, Jin Y, Geng C, Aziz AuR, Zhang Y, Deng S, Ren H, Liu B. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices in clinical applications. Chromatographia. 2020;83(6):693-701. doi: 10.1007/s10337-020-03892-1.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Rapid testing methods of drugs of abuse. Vienna: UNODC; 1995.
Moffat AC, Osselton MD, Widdop B. Clarke’s analysis of drugs and poisons. 4th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2011.
Rahayu M, Solihat MF, Klinik T. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI; 2018.
Kovar KA, Laudszun M. Chemistry and reaction mechanisms of rapid tests for drugs of abuse and precursors chemicals. US: United Nations, Scientific and Technical Notes; 1989.
Departemen kesehatan republik indonesia (Depkes RI). Farmakope Indonesia. 5th ed. Jakarta: Depkes RI; 2014.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 RIMADANI PRATIWI, NISA AMALIA, ALIYA NUR HASANAH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.