Karthikeyan Venkatachalam


Objective: To explore the micro morphology and SEM of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) leaves along with determination of trace elements by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy including SEM, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, EDAX and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed.

Results: Leaves (8-14cm × 4-5 cm) are dorsiventral, Foliate – elliptic, whitish green with serrate margin, acuminate apex and symmetrical base with winged petiole. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of cyclocytic stomata in lower epidermis and apostomatic upper epidermis, three layers of short palisade cells, wide circular secretary cavities, large double stranded vascular bundles, xylem vessels, phloem, and fibers. SEM of midrib showed many folded appearance.No diagnostic feature and new kind of micro constituents not previously recognized and apparently simple structure which may be extremely complex was observed.

Identification of inorganic minerals of the leaves of C.aurantium by EDAX showed the presence of minerals Calcium (0.42 percent), Potassium (0.72 percent), Magnesium (0.09 percent), and Sodium (0.09 percent).

Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, proteins and aminoacids, flavonoids, volatile oil, terpenoids, saponin, carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids, mucilage, glycosides, fixed oil.

Conclusion: Microscopic analysis was informative and provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity & quality and immense value in authentication of the leaf. Elemental composition of the leaves useful in preparation of various herbal formulations with enriched minerals.

| PDF |


Anonymous. Wealth of India Raw materials. Ca-Ci, Vol III. National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR), CSIR: New Delhi; 2005.

Morton JF. A survey of medicinal plants of curacao. Econ Bot1968; 22: 87-92.

Comerford SC. Medicinal plants of two mayan healers from San andres, Peten, Guatemala. Econ Bot1996; 50(3): 327-36.

Whistler WA. Traditional and herbal medicine in the Cook Islands. J Ethno pharmacol1985; 13(3): 239-80.

Gurib-Fakim A, Sweraj MD, Gueho J, Dullo E. Medicinal plants of Rodrigues. Int J Pharmocog1996; 34(1): 2-14.

Hedberg I, Hedberg O, Madati PJ, Mshigeni KE, Mshiu EN, Samuwlssom G. Inventory of plants used in traditional mediine in Tanzania. Part III. Plants of the families’ Papilionaceae-Vitaceae. J Ethno Pharmacol1983; 9(2/3): 237-60.

Coe FG, Anderson GJ. Screening of medicinal plants used by the Garifuna of Eastern Nicaragua for Bioactive compounds. J Ethno Pharmacol1996; 53: 29-50.

Browner CH. Plants used for reproductive health in Oaxaca, Mexico. Econ Bot1985; 39(4): 482-504.

Darias V, Bravo L, Barquin E, Herrera DM, Fraile C. Contribution to the ethnopharmacological study of the Canary Islands. J Ethno Pharmacol 1986; 15(2): 169-93.

Cha S. Potential anticancer medicinal plants. A statistical evaluation of their frequencies of appearance in oriental medicine formulation. Korean J Pharmacog1977; 8: 1.

Weniger B, Rouzier M, Daguilh R, Henrys D, Henrys JH, Anton R. Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. Ethnopharmacological Inventory. J Ethno Pharmacol1986; 17(1): 13-30.

Glron LM, Freire V, Alonzo A, Carceres A. Ethanobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala. J Ethno Pharmacol 1991; 34 (2/3): 173-87.

Darias V, Abdala S, Martin D, Ramos F. Hypoglycaemic plants from the Canary Islands. Phytother Res Suppl. 1996; 10: S3-S5.

Barrett B. Medicinal plants of Nicaragua’s Atlantic coast. Econ Bot1994; 48 (1): 8-20.

De-feo V, Senatore F. Medicinal plants and phytotheraphy in the Amalfitan coast, Salerno province, Campania, Southern Italy. J Ethano Pharmacol1993; 39(1): 39-51.

May G, Willuhn G. Anti viral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures. Arzneim-Forscb1978; 28(1): 1-7.

Verpoorte R, Dihal PP. Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Ethno Pharmacol1987; 21(3): 315-18.

EL-Keltawi NEM, Megalla Se, Ross SA. Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbo Pol 1980; 26(4): 245-50.

Carvalho Freitas MIR, Costa M. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from citrus aurantium L. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(12): 1629-33.

De blasi V, Debrot S, Menoud PA, Gendre L. Schowing J. Amoebicidal effect of essential oils in vitro. J Toxicol Clin Exp 1990; 10(6): 361-73.

Rio JAD, Benavente O, Castillo J, Borrego F. Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 1992; 31(2): 723-24.

Kokate CK, Gokhale SB, Purohit AP. Pharmacognosy. 46th Edn. Nirali Prakashan: New Delhi; 2010. A.1-6.

Asokan J. Botanical microtechnique principles and practice.1st edn. Plant anatomy research centre: Chennai; 2009.

Kunle, Folashade O,Egharevba, Omoregie H, Ahamadu, Ochogu P. Standardization of herbal medicines-A Review. Int J Biodiver Conser. 2012; 4(3):101-12.

Evan WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 16th edn. Elsevier: London Saunders; 2009. P563-70.

WHO. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. World Health Organisation: Geneva; 1998.

Mukherjee PK. Quality control of Herbal drugs- An approach to evaluation of botanicals 1st edn. Business Horizon: New Delhi; 2012.

Varahalarao Vadlapudi, Kaladhar DSVGK. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants. Asian Pac J Trop Diseases 2012; 2(1): S26-32.

Yashvanth S. Rani SS. Rao AS. Madhavendra SS. Anatomical exploration of Leucas aspera (Willd) links a medicinal herb and its pharmacognostic relevance. J Pharma Res 2011; 4(12):4777-79.

Pradhan AN, Agrahari AK, Meher A, Mishra MN, Elemental analysis by energy Dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Plant. J. Pharma Res 2010; 3(4): 669-70.

Chan YY, Lo SCL. Analysis of Ling Zhi (Gonoderma lucidum) using dynamic reaction cell ICP-MS and ICP-AES. J. Anal. Atomic Spectrometry 2003; 18: 146-50.

Serrano R, Silva G, Silva O. Application of light and scanning electron microscopy in the identification of herbal medicines. In: Mendez vilas A, Diaz J. (eds). Microscopy: Science, Technology, Application and Education. Vol.1, Sapin, Formatex Research Centre; 2010, p182-90.

Singh S, Machawal L, Chauhan MG. Pharmacognostic study of male leaves of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. with special emphasis on microscopic technique. J Pharmacognosy Phytother 2010; 2(5): 71-75.

Nayak BS, Patel KN. Pharmacognostic studies of the Jatropha curcas leaves. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2010; 2(1): 140-43.

Pimple BP, Patel AN, Kadam PV, Patil MJ. Microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Diseases 2012; 2(2): S897-903.

Patel S, Zaveri M. Pharmacognostic study of the root of Justicia gendarussa Burm. J Trad Med 2011; 6(2): 61-72.

Sandipkumar Bhat P, Saurabh Pandya S. S.E.M and T.E.M study of bark of Listea chinensis Lam. J Phar Res 2012; 5(2):1260-63.

Under Wood EJ. Trace metals in human and animal health. J. Hum. Nutr.1981; 53:37-48.

Sahito SR, Memon MA, Kazi, TG, Kazi GH, Jakhrani MA,HaqueQU, Shar GQ. Evaluation of mineral contents in medicinal plant Azadirechta indica (Neem). J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 2003; 25(2):139-43.

Pirzada AJ, Iqbal P, Shaik W, Kazi TG, Ghani KU. Studies on the elemental Composition and antifungal activity of medicinal plant Lippia nodiflora L. Against skin fungi. J. Pak Assoc. Dermat 2005; 15: 113-18.

About this article





Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


Innovare Journal of Health Sciences
Vol 1 Issue 2 2013 (July-September) Page: 1-5

Online ISSN



306 Views | 280 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Karthikeyan Venkatachalam


  • There are currently no refbacks.