PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, SEM AND EDAX PROFILE OF THE LEAVES OF CITRUS AURANTIUM L. (RUTACEAE)
Objective: To explore the micro morphology and SEM of Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae) leaves along with determination of trace elements by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis.
Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy including SEM, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, EDAX and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed.
Results: Leaves (8-14cm Ã— 4-5 cm) are dorsiventral, Foliate â€“ elliptic, whitish green with serrate margin, acuminate apex and symmetrical base with winged petiole. Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of cyclocytic stomata in lower epidermis and apostomatic upper epidermis, three layers of short palisade cells, wide circular secretary cavities, large double stranded vascular bundles, xylem vessels, phloem, and fibers. SEM of midrib showed many folded appearance.No diagnostic feature and new kind of micro constituents not previously recognized and apparently simple structure which may be extremely complex was observed.
Identification of inorganic minerals of the leaves of C.aurantium by EDAX showed the presence of minerals Calcium (0.42 percent), Potassium (0.72 percent), Magnesium (0.09 percent), and Sodium (0.09 percent).
Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physico chemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, proteins and aminoacids, flavonoids, volatile oil, terpenoids, saponin, carbohydrates and absence of alkaloids, mucilage, glycosides, fixed oil.
Conclusion: Microscopic analysis was informative and provides useful information in the botanical identification, standardization for purity & quality and immense value in authentication of the leaf. Elemental composition of the leaves useful in preparation of various herbal formulations with enriched minerals.
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