EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GLYCYRIZZA GLABRA AGAINST STEREPTOZOTOCIN AND HIGH FAT DIET INDUCED DIABETES AND HYPERLIPIDEMIA
Objective: To study the effect of ethanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra against streptozotocin and high-fat-diet-induced diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
Methods: The present study was conducted on a 14 d model in which Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was given to Streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg; i. p.) induced diabetic rats fed with high fat diet (HFD), and its protective effect has been studied. The antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects have been evaluated on the basis of physical, biochemical as well as histomorphological parameters.
Results: The Glycyrrhiza glabra extract pre-treated group showed a significant decrease in biochemical parameters like Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein (HDL), Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), Alanine transaminase (ALT) compared with D-HFD group (p<0.01). The pre-treated groups also showed significant protection in physical parameters as compared to D-HFD group (p<0.01) which was also confirmed by histopathological studies. All these results were compared and found to be similar with two standard drugs metformin (500 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (10 mg/Kg).
Conclusion: This study concluded that alcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (500 mg/kg) has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential against streptozotocin and high-fat diet induced diabetic hyperlipidemic rats comparable to the clinically used drugs.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Diabetic hyperlipidemia, Diabetes mellitus, Hyperlipidemia, Lipid profile, Streptozotocin
2. https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk/philip.home/who_dmg. [Last accessed on 05 Dec 2015].
3. Jobon GJ, Arango A, Abad V, Garcia J, Cuervo H, Velasquez A, et al. Clinical and immunological characteristics of type-1 diabetes mellitus in Northwestern Colombian population. Diabetic Res Clin Pract 2006;72:170-5.
4. Wasserfall CH, Atkinson MA. (Autoantibody markers for the diagnosis and prediction of type 1 diabetes. Autoimmun Rev 2006;15:424â€“8.
5. Achenbach P, Ziegler AG. Diabetes-related antibodies in euglycemic subjects. J Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2005;1 Suppl 9:101-17.
6. Robertson RP. Oxidative stress and impaired insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2006;6:615-9.
7. Stary HC, Chandler AB, Dinsmore RE, Fuster V, Glagov S, Insull W, et al. A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995;15:1512-31.
8. Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s. Nat J 1993;62:801-9.
9. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: global burden of disease study. Lancet 1997;349:1436-42.
10. Nalini SH, Thomas MW. Review of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linn. Siddha Papers 2009;2:1-7.
11. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. â€œPharmacognosyâ€. 20th ed. Nirali prakashan, pune; 1990.
12. Jatav VS, Singh S, Khatri P, Sharma A. Recent pharmacological trends of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Unani Res 2011;1:1-11.
13. Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskadbi S, Devasagayam TPA. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;40:163â€“73.
14. Dadhania SS, Shah NN, Sachdeva PD, Patel NB, Jani DK. A study of the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of polyherbal formulation using various experimental animal models. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;21:1-4.
15. Hasani S, Nayebi N, Moradi L, Mehri A, Larijani B, Abdollahi M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a systematic review. Curr Pharm Des 2010;16:2935-47.
16. Panneerselvam K, Kuppuswamy K, Kodukkur VP. Hypolipidemic activity of 18ÃŸ-glycyrrhetinic acid on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2009;612:93-7.
17. Sianne S, Fanie RVH. Antimalarial activity of plant metabolites. Nat Prod Rep 2002;1 Suppl 9:675â€“2.
18. Achenbach P, Zeigler AG. Diabetes-related antibodies in euglycemic subjects. J Best Practice Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;19:101-17.
19. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants published by Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow and National Institute of Sciences Communication and Information Resources: New Delhi; 1990-1994. p. 395-8.
20. Wang Z, Gleichmann H. GLUT2 in pancreatic islets: crucial target molecule in diabetes induced with multiple low doses of streptozotocin in mice. Diabetes 1998;47:50â€“6.
21. Schnedl WJ, Ferber S, Johnson JH, Newgard CB. STZ transport and cytotoxicity. Specific enhancement in GLUT2-expressing cells. Diabetes 1994;43:1326â€“33.
22. Shamim A, Mahmood T, Hussain HH, Bagga P, Roy S. Effect of Tinospora cardi folia (Guduchi) root extract on cardiotoxicity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci 2015;5:12-9.
23. Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1984;21:130-13.
24. Sedlak J, Lindsay RH. Estimation of total, protein-bound and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups in tissues with Ellmanâ€™s reagent. Anal Biochem 1968;25:192-205.
25. Begriche K, Igoudjil A, Pessayre D, Fromenty B. Mitochondrial dysfunction in NASH: causes, consequences and possible means to prevent it. Mitochondrion 2006;6:1-28.
26. Vijaya C, Ramanathan M, Suresh B. Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn) in hyperlipidemic models of Wistar Albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2009;47:182-18.
27. Pedersen TR. Pro and con: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering is and will be the key to the future of lipid management. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:8B-12B.
28. Parthasarathy S, Quinn MT, Schwenke DC, Carew TE, Steinberg B. Oxidative modification of beta-very low-density lipoprotein. The potential role of monocyte recruitment and foam cell formulation. Atherosclerosis 1989;9:398.
29. Boden WE, Pearson TA. Raising low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is an important target of therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:645.