EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF COMBRETUM ALBIDUM G. DON AGAINST CCl4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN RATS
Objective: The present investigations were undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Combretum albidum G Don against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Methods: Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Combretum albidum (EECA) was determined by using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication of rats as experimental models. The extent of liver damage and effect of the plant extract was assessed by various biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total billrubin (TB) and total protein (TP) in blood serum and concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) in liver were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied.
Results: The administration of EECA at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg/b.w., orally had decreased the rise of ALT, AST, ALP, TB and TBRAS levels and the effects were comparable to standard drug (Silymarin 25 mg/kg/b. w,) the GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and TP levels were significantly increased in the animals received EECA. The histopathological studies show decreased necrosis and hepatocellular degeneration when compared to the CCl Â intoxicated liver.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the hepatoprotective and the antioxidant activity of the whole plant of Combretum albidum therefore scientifically supports the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of liver disorders.
2. Ross, Wilson. Anatomy and physiology in health and illness. Ninth Edition. Published by Elsevier Ltd; 2005. p. 307-10, 333.
3. Scote luper ND. A review of plants used in the treatment: of liver disease Part-1. Alternative Med Rev 1998;16:410-7.
4. Chattopadhyay RR. Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica the whole plant extract, Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89:217-9.
5. Sajeev KK, Sasidharan N. Ethnobotanical observations on tribals of the chinnar wildlife sanctuary. Ancient Sci Life 1997;16:284-92.
6. Ganesan S, Ponnuchamy M, Kesavan L, Selvaraj A. Floristic composition and practices on the selected sacred groves of the palla patty village (reserved forest), Tamil Nadu. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2009;8:154-62.
7. Karuppusamy S. Medicinal plants used by paliyan tribes of sirumalai hills of southern India. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2007;6:436-42.
8. Kadavul K, Dixit AK. Ethnomedicinal studies of woody species of kalrayan and shervarayan hills, Eastern Ghats Tamilnadu. Indian J Traditional Knowledge 2009;8:592-7.
9. Sreedhar S, Kumar UP, Shree ABR. Pharmacognostic standardization of heartwood of Combretum albidum G don an important ethnomedicinal liana. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2013;5:106-12.
10. Bokhad MN, Rothe SP. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of Combretum albidum G. Don. An ignored medicinally important liana. J Exp Sci 2012;3:1-4.
11. Sailaja T, Rao ML, Savithramma N. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phytochemicals of Combretum albidum G Don from rare medicinal plant taxon. J Phytochem Photon 2013;114:220-5.
12. Kumar UP, Sreedhar S, Purushothaman E. Secondary metabolite from the heartwood of Combretum albidum G Don. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2015;7:319-24.
13. Sreedhar S, Nitha B, Shree ABR. Antimicrobial activity of stem bark of Combretum albidum G. Don. A traditional medicinal liana. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013;4:3184-8.
14. OECD. Acute oral toxicity. Acute oral toxic class method guideline 423 adopted 23.03.1996. In: Eleventh Addendum to the OECD, guidelines for the testing of chemicals organization for economical co-operation and development, Paris; 2000.
15. Shukla Mukherjee, Sur A, Maiti BR. Hepatoprotective effect of Swertia chirata on rat. Indian J Exp Biol 1997;35:384-8.
16. King J. The hydrolases-acid and alkaline phosphatase, practical clinical enzymology. Van D. ed. London: Nostrand company Lt; 1965. p. 191-208.
17. Malloy HJ, Evelyn KA. The determination of bilirubin with the photoelectric colorimeter. J Biol Chem 1937;119:481.
18. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75.
19. Okhawa H, Ohigni N, Yagi K. Assay of lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-9.
20. Sedlak J, Lindsay RH. Estimation of total protein bound and non-protein sulfhydryl groups in tissue with Ellman's reagent. Anal Biochem 1968;25:293-8.
21. Misra HP, Fridovich. The role of superoxide anion in the autooxidation of epinephrine anion and a simple assay of superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 1972;247:3170-84.
22. Tukahara S, Hamilton BH, Nell J, Ogura Y, Nishmura E. Hypocatalasemia new genetic carrier state. J Clin Invest 1960;29:610-6.
23. Rotruck JT, Pope LA, Ganther HE, Swanson AB. Selenium biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidise. Science 1973;179:588-93.
24. Habig WH, Pabst MS, Jekpoly WB. Gluthathione transferase: a first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Boil Chem 1974;249:7130-6.
25. Valeer JD. Liver tissue examination. J Hepatol 2003;39:543-9.
26. Clauson GA. Mechanism of carbon tetrachloride heptotoxicity. Pathol Immunopathol Res 1989;8:104-12.
27. Rubinstein D. Epinephrine release and liver glycogen levels after carbon tetrachloride administration. Am J Physiol 1962;203:1033-7.
28. Recknagel RO, Ghosal AK. Quantitative estimation of peroxidative degeneration of liver microsomal and mitochondrial lipids after carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Exp Mol Pathol 1966;5:413-26.
29. Noguchi T, Fong KL, Lai EK. Specificity of phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 for metabolism of carbon tetrachloride to the trichloromethyl radical. Biochem Pharmacol 1982;31:615-24.
30. Plaa G, Charbonnean M. Detection and evaluation of the chemically induced liver injury. In: Hayes AW. Principals and methods of toxicology. Raven Press: New York; 1994. p. 841-6.
31. Portmann B, Talbot IC, Day DW, Davidson AR. Histopathological changes in the liver following a paracetamol over dose; correlation with clinical and biochemical parameter. J Pathol 1975;117:169-80.
32. Mitra SK, Venkataranganna MV, Sundraram R, Gopumadhavan S. Protective effect of HD-03, a herbal formulation, against various heptotoxic agents in rats. J Ethanopharmacol 1998;63:181-6.
33. Murthy KNC, Jayaprakash GK, Singh RP. Studies on antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extracts using in vivo models. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:4791.
34. Souza MF, Rao VSN, Silveira ER. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by ternatin, a tetramethoxyflavone from Egletes viscosa L. Phytomedicine 1997;4:25.
35. Scott MD, Lubin BH, Zuo L, Kuypers FA. Erythrocyte defense against hydrogenperoxide: preeminent importance of catalase. J Lab Clin Med 1991;118:7-16.
36. Reckengel RO, Glende EA, Britton RS. Free radical damage and lipid peroxidation. In: Histotoxicology. Meeks RG, Harrison SD, Bull RJ. Eds. CRC Press: Florida; 1991. p. 401-36.
37. Williams A, Burk RF. Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity: an example of free radical-mediated injury. Semin Liver Dis 1990;10:279-84.
38. Chance B, Green Stein DS, Roughton RJW. The mechanism of catalase action I-steady state analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 1952;37:301-39.
39. Manjunatha BK, Vidya SM. Hepatoprotective activity of Vitex trifolia against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008;70:241-5.
40. Das S, Sarma G. Study of the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of the pulp of Eugenia Jambolana (Jamun) in albino rats. Exp Res 2009;3:1466-74.