EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF DIFFERENT SHODHIT GUGGUL
Objective: The present study was aimed to identify the physicochemical data of shodhit guggul. Guggul is a gum-resin exudate from the plant Commiphora weightii (Arn.) Bhandari, belonging to Burseraceae family. In Ayurveda, guggul is always purified. This purification is known as Shodhan. Shodhan is a process by which guggul is made non-toxic, effective, suitable and fit for therapeutic purposes.
Methods: The seven different shodhan dravya were used to prepare shodhit guggul. They were evaluated by performing physicochemical parameters including five different extractive value; total ash, acid insoluble, water soluble and sulphated ash value; pH, and loss on drying.
Results: Analytical results of raw guggul showed total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash value to 5.36Â±0.04%, 0.96Â±0.03%, 4.51Â±0.03 % and 8.40Â±0.04% respectively. These all values of each shodhit guggul were different. The extractive value of raw guggul was comparable with standard value while the extractive value of each shodhit guggul was totally different. The pH value of 1% w/v and 10% w/v aqueous solution of raw guggul was 6.44Â±0.18 though pH of each shodhit guggul was changed. The loss on drying of raw guggul was found to be 1.88Â±0.02%w/v, however, this value was different for each shodhit guggul.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that the different shodhan process with specific shodhan dravya affects the physicochemical parameters. The analysis and comparison of the data showed the difference in the properties of seven shodhit guggul with respect to raw Guggul.
2. Dikshit M. Poisonous plants as medicine after shodhana a review. Unique J Ayur Herbal Med 2016;4:1-4.
3. Chaube A, Prajapati PK, Dixit SK. On the technique of sodhana. Ancient Sci Life 1996;16:67-73.
4. Morbale MS, Herwade AS. Concept of shodhan [Purification Method]. Int Ayur Med J 2015;3:2725-8.
5. Murulihar N, Mohan Kumar BN. A unique process: concept of shodhana. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;5:657-63.
6. Rout OP, Acharya, Mishra S. Oleo gum resin guggul: a review of the medicinal evidence for its therapeutic properties. Int J Res Ayur Pharm 2012;3:15-21.
7. Poonia Priyanka, Mittal Sanjeev K. Review article gum guggul: an ayurvedic boom. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2014;6:347-54.
8. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. Edn. 46, Nirali Prakashan, Pune; 2008. p. 136-7.
9. Paraskeva MP. A phytochemical and pharmacological study of ten Commiphora species indigenous to South Africa, Thesis submitted to University of the Wiwatersrand, Johannesburg; 2007. p. 35-6.
10. Paranjpe P. Indian medicinal plants forgotten halers. The Chaukhamba Ayurvijnana studies 25, chaukhambha sanskrit pratishthan, Delhi; 2013. p. 91-3.
11. Taru P, Mukta A, Undale V, Bhosale A. Acute and subacute toxicity studies on shodhana processed guggul. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2013;4:796-9.
12. Pendyala V, Janga R, Suryadevara V. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of Commiphora mukul for antidepressant activity in albino mice. Asia J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:360-3.
13. Nadkarni KM. Indian material Medica with Ayurvedic, Unani, Tibbi, Siddha, Allopathic, Homeopathic, Naturopathic and Home remedies Appendices and Index, Bombay popular Prakashan; 1982. p. 167-70.
14. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Edn. 2. Vol. I. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India; 2004. p. 525-9.
15. Anonymous, The wealth of India, A Dictionary of Raw Materials and Industrial Product, Raw Materials, CSIR, India; 2012. p. 313-4.
16. Kamble R, Sathaye S, Shah DP. Evaluation of the antispasmodic activity of different shodhit guggul using different shodhan process. Indian J Pharm Sci 2008;70:368â€“72.
17. Shashtri K. Rasatarangini published by Motilal banarasi das;1903. p. 754-8.
18. Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, I (B); 1978. p. 41-2.
19. Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of AYUSH Part-I; 2008. p. 56-7.
20. Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of AYUSH Part-I, Second Edition; 2016. p. 203-24.
21. Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Government of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of AYUSH; 2007. p. 168-73.
22. Anonymous. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials, World health Organization, Geneve, A. I. T. B. S. Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi; 2002. p. 28-33.
23. World Health Organization, (WHO), Final text for revision of the international pharmacopoeia; 2012. p. 1-2.
24. Mukherjee PK. Quality control of herbal drugs. Horizons pharmaceutical publishers; 2012. p. 186-93.
25. Regupathi T, Chitra K. Physicochemical analysis of medicinal herbs, Eclipta alba (L.) Hass and Lippia nodiflora (Linn.). Int J Pharm Phytopharm Res 2015;4:249-51.
26. Purohit AP, Kokate CK, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy 13th Edition. Nirali Prakashan India; 2005. p. 256â€“9.
27. Rajesh P, Latha S. Capparis sepiaria Linn.â€“pharmacognostical standardization and toxicity profile with chemical compounds identification (GC-MS)â€. Int J Phytomed 2010;2:71-9.
28. Swamy P, Mulla SK. Preliminary pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Portulaca quadrifida Linnâ€. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2010;2:699-702.
29. Patnia S, Saha AN. Physicochemical, phytochemical and elemental analysis of stem bark and roots of Berberis asiatica. Adv Appl Sci Res 2012;3:3624-8.
30. Mritunjay Kumar, Mondal P, Borah S, Mahato K. Physico-chemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical investigation, fluorescence and TLC analysis of leaves of the plant Lasia spinose (Lour) thwaites. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:306-10.
31. Shwetajain, Sharma C, Khatri P, Jain A, Vaidya A. Pharmacognostic and phyto chemical investigations of the leaves of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz) willd. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:122-5.
32. Anonymous. WHO Monograph on selected medicinal plants. Vol. 3; 2009. p. 177-89.
33. Kripa KG, Sangeetha R, Chamundeeswari D. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of the plant Leucas aspera. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:263-8.
34. Pandey MK, Singh GN, Sharma Rajeev Kr, Lata Sneh. Standardization of yakritplihantak churna. An ayurvedic poly herbal formulation. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:171-6.
35. Purwantiningsih, Purwantin I, Djoko S. Identification of standard parameters of kepel leaves [Stelechocarpus Burahol (Bl.) Hook. F. and Th.] and the extract as raw material for anti-hyperuricemic medicaments. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:149-53.