• Paini Sri Widyawati Food Technology Programme, Agricultural Technology Faculty, Widya Mandala Catholic University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, 60265
  • Yesiana D. W. Werdani Nurse Faculty, Widya Mandala Catholic University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, 60265
  • Christine Setiokusumo Food Technology Programme, Agricultural Technology Faculty, Widya Mandala Catholic University, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, 60265


Objective: This study was done to determine the effect of pluchea leaves and green tea mixtures at various proportions to antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

Methods: The research used a single factor randomized block design. Research factors were pluchea and green tea mixture proportions, including 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; and 0:100% (w/w), respectively. Each of factors was repeated five times. The parameters observed in this study were phytochemical compounds, total phenols, total flavonoids, free radical DPPH scavenging activity, iron ion reducing power, alpha amylase and alpha glycosidase inhibition activities. The data were statistically α = 5%, if the data analysis showed a significant analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at effect then it was continued with duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).

Results: The phytochemical compounds containing in pluchea leaves and green tea mixtures were alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, sterols, and cardiac glycosides. The qualitative assay of phytochemical compounds from aqueous extract had a different pattern with total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), especially at 75:25; 50:50 and 25:75 % (w/w) from pluchea leaves and green tea mixture proportions. The 50:50% (w/w) proportions of samples had the highest TPC and TFC, it was proposed that there was an interaction between bioactive compounds of pluchea leaves and green tea. TPC and TFC were correlated with free radical DPPH scavenging activity, iron reducing power and alpha glycosidase inhibition activity, but the alpha amylase inhibition activity had the different graph pattern with the TPC and TFC.

Conclusion: The antioxidant capacity of pluchea leaves and green tea mixtures at various proportions had the graph pattern similar to the alpha glycosidase inhibitory activity and different with the alpha amylase inhibitory activity.

Keywords: Pluchea leaves, Green tea, Antioxidant, Anti diabetic


Download data is not yet available.


1. Widyawati PS, Wijaya CH, Hardjosworo PS, Sajuthi D. Antioxidant activity of pluchea (Pluchea indica Less) leaves methanolic extract and its fractions. Agritech 2012;32:249-57.
2. Widyawati PS, Budianta TDW, Kusuma FA, Wijaya EL. Difference of solvent polarity to phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of Pluchea Indica less leaves extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Res 2014a;6:850-5.
3. Widyawati PS, Budianta TDW, Kusuma FA, Wijaya EL, Yaunatan DI, Wongso RS. Potency of beluntas (Pluchea indica Less) leaves to extract as antioxidant and anti warmed over flavor (WOF) of duck meat. International Congress Challenges of Biotechnological Research in Food and Health. Surakarta; 2014b.
4. Widyawati PS, Budianta TDW, Utomo AR, Harianto I. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Pluchea Indica Less drink in tea bag packaging. Int J Food Nut Sci 2016;5:113-20.
5. Srisook K, Buapool D, Boonbai R, Simmasut P, Charoensuk Y, Srisook E. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hot water extract from Pluchea indica Less herbal tea. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:4077-81.
6. Widyawati PS, Budianta TDW, Gunawan DI, Wongso RS. Evaluation antidiabetic activity of various leaf extracts of Pluchea indica Less. Int J Pharm Pharm Res 2015;7:597-603.
7. Widyawati PS, Wijaya CH, Hardjosworo PS, Sajuthi D. Evaluation of antioxidant activity from pluchea leaves extract (Pluchea indica Less) based on leaf segment level. Rekapangan J 2011;5:1-14.
8. Carvalho M, Jerónimo C, Valentão P, Andrade PB, Silva BM. Green tea: a promising anticancer agent for renal cell carcinoma. Food Chem 2010;122:49–54.
9. Moderno PM, Carvalho M, Silva BM. Recent patents on Camellia sinensis: Source of health promoting compounds. Recent Patents Food Nut Agric 2009;1:182–92.
10. Yang CS, Lambert JD, Hou Z, Ju J, Lu G, Hao X. Molecular targets for the cancer preventive activity of tea polyphenols. Mol Carcinog 2006;45:431–5.
11. Peres RG, Tonin FG, Tavares MFM, Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Determination of catechins in green tea infusions by reduced flow micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Food Chem 2011; 127:651–5.
12. Kang KW, Oh SJ, Ryu SY, Song GY, Kim BH, Kang JS, et al. Evaluation of the total oxy-radical scavenging capacity of catechins isolated from green tea. Food Chem 2010;121:1089–94.
13. Molan AL, Flanagan J, Wei W, Moughan PJ. Selenium-containing green tea has higher antioxidant and prebiotic activities than regular green tea. Food Chem 2009;114:829–35.
14. Miura T, Koike T, Ishida T. Antidiabetic activity of green tea (Thea Sinensis L.) in genetically type 2 diabetic mice. J Health Sci 2005;51:708-10.
15. Mota MADL, Landim JSP, Targino TSS, Da Silva S FR, Da Silva SL, Pereira MRP. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice. Acta Cir Bras 2015;30:242-6.
16. Deetae P, Parichanon. P, Trakunleewatthana P, Chanseetis C, Lertsiri S. Antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of thai herbal teas in comparison with conventional teas. Food Chem 2012;133:953-9.
17. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Method. Padmawinata K, Soediro I. Eds. Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung; 1996.
18. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin–ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymol 1999;99:152-78.
19. Al-Temimi A, Choudhary R. Determination of antioxidant activity in different kinds of plants in vivo and in vitro by using diverse technical methods. J Nut Food Sci 2013;3:1-9.
20. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1995;28:25-30.
21. Chanda S, Dave R. In vivo models for antioxidant activity evaluation and some medicinal plants possessing antioxidant properties: an overview. Afr J Microbiol Res 2009;3:981-96.
22. Bernfeld P. Amylases, alpha and beta. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO. Eds. Methods in Enzymology. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press; 1955. p. 149-58.
23. Da Silva Pinto M, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K. Functionality of bioactive compounds in Brazilian strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars: evaluation of hyperglycemia and hypertension potential using in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:4386-92.
24. Wadood A, Ghufran M, Jamal SB, Naeem M, Khan A, Ghaffar R, et al. Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants occurring in the local area of mardan. Biochem Anal Biochem 2013;2:2-4.
25. Keerthana G, Kalaivani MK, Sumathy A. In vitro alpha amylase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Croton Bonplandianum. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6 (Suppl 4): 32-6.
26. Dastjerdi ZM, Namjoyan F, Azemi ME. Alpha amylase inhibition activity of some plants extract of teucrium species. Eur J Biol Sci 2015;7:26-31.
27. Nanumala SK, Tulasi P, Sujitha E. In vitro antidiabetic activity of seed extracts of Cassia auriculata and Cassia angustifolia. Eur J Exp Biol 2015;5:12-7.
28. Hung PV, Duy TL. Effects of drying methods on bioactive compounds of vegetables and correlation between bioactive compounds and their antioxidants. Int Food Res J 2012;19:327-32.
29. Adefegha SA, Oboh G. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:774-81.
30. Priecina L, Karlina D. Total polyphenol, flavonoid content and antiradical activity of celery, dill, parsley, onion and garlic dried in convention and microwave-vacuum dryers. 2nd International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences IPCBEE. Vol. 53. Singapore: IACSIT Press; 2013.
31. Andarwulan N, Batari R, Sandrasari DA, Bolling B, Wijaya H. Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia. Food Chem 2010;121:1231-5.
32. Calado JCP, Albertão PA, Aparecida de Oliveira E, Letra MHS, Sawaya ACHF, Marcucci MC. Flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity in fruit, vegetables and other types of food. Agric Sci 2015;6:426-35.
33. Stanković MS. Total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity of Marrubium Peregrinum L. extracts. Kragujev J Sci 2011;33:63-72.
34. Stanojević L, Stanković M, Nikolić V, Nikolić L, Ristić D, Čanadanovic-Brunet J, et al. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Hieracium pilosella L. extracts. Sensors 2009;9:5702-14.
35. Da Silva MCA, Paiva SR. Antioxidant activity and flavonoid content of Clusia fluminensis Planch. and Triana. An Acad Bras Cienc 2012;84:609-16.
36. Bag GC, Devi PG, Bhaigyabati TH. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of methanolic rhizome extract of three Hedychium species of manipur valley. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2015;30:154-9.
37. Pontis JA, Da Costa LAMA, Da Silva SJR, Flach A. Color, phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of honey from Roraima, Brazil. Food Sci Tech Campinas 2014;34:69-73.
38. Ghasemia K, Ghasemia Y, Ebrahimzadeh MA. Antioxidant activity, phenol and flavonoid contents of 13 citrus species peels and tissues. Pak J Pharm Sci 2009;22:277-81.
39. Alaa S, Abdellah M, Hamadi L. Phytochemical screening, contribution to the study of the anti fungal effect of flavonoids from different parts of Ziziphus lotus of south west Algeria. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:13-6.
40. Rohman A, Riyanto S, Yuniarti N, Saputra WR, Utami R, Mulatsih W. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavaonoid of extracts and fractions of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam). Int Food Res J 2010;17:97-106.
41. Har LW, Ismail IS. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and total flavonoids of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves. Int J Med Arom Plants 2012;2:219-28.
42. Chlopicka J, Pasko P, Gorinstein S, Jedryas A, Zagrodzki P. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of pseudocereal breads. LWT Food Sci Technol 2012;46:548-55.
43. Ruskin RS, Vasanthakumari B, Citarasu T. In vitro activity of various leaf extracts of Canthium coromandelicum (Burm F.) Alston. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:214-8.
44. Gholivand MB, Piryaei M. The antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids content of Bryonia dioica Jacq. Biologija 2012;58:99–105.
45. Lim SM, Loh SP. In vitro antioxidant capacities and antidiabetic properties of phenolic extracts from selected citrus peels. Int Food Res J 2016;23:211-9.
46. McCue P, Vattem D, Shetty K. Inhibitory effect of clonal oregano extracts against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Asian Phram J Clin Nut 2004;13:401-8.
47. Akah PA, Uzodinma SU, Okolo CE. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous and methanol extract and fractions of Gongronema latifolium (Asclepidaceae) leaves in alloxan diabetic rats. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:99-102.
48. McCue P, Kwon YI, Shetty K. Anti-diabetic and antihypertensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean. Asian Pharm J Clin Nut 2005;14:145-52.
49. Oboh G, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO, Adefegha SA. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extract of two varieties of ginger on some key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes in vitro. J Food Nut Res 2010;49:14-20.
334 Views | 1038 Downloads
How to Cite
Widyawati, P. S., Y. D. W. Werdani, and C. Setiokusumo. “IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITIES AND ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES OF PLUCHEA LEAVES AND GREEN TEA MIXTURES AT VARIOUS PROPORTIONS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 9, no. 8, Aug. 2017, pp. 203-8, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i8.19545.
Original Article(s)