EFFECT OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL FACTORS ON FRUITING BODY FORMATION IN MUSHROOM
Objective: Fungi are heterotrophs and are involved in decomposition, nutrient cycling and nutrient transport, and are indispensable for achieving sustainable development. Mushrooms are the fungi with a distinctive fruiting body. Mushrooms are produced all over the world. In India, Punjab is the leading mushroom growing state. Mushrooms are rich sources of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Different types of immunoceuticals like lentinan, schizophyllan, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) etc. have also been prepared from various mushrooms. The present review work highlights important observations in the area of mushroom.
Methods: This review also shows that how several factors affect the fruiting body formation of mushrooms, which includes physiological (composition of culture media) and environmental factors (light, temperature, salinity, etc.). There are different factors like light, temperature etc. which affects the fruiting body development.
Results: It has been found that, light has positive effects on hyphal aggregation and fruiting body maturation. It has been found that in oyster mushroom, light is essential for both normal expansion of pileus and in spore formation. It has been found that length of Stipe and the diameter of cap decreases with an increase in the concentration of CO2. Also, there is a range of temperature within which sporophore development occurs. The composition of media affects the growth of mushrooms too. It's important to maintain a balance between carbon and nitrogen sources for induction of the fruiting body.
Conclusion: There are different environmental factors affecting the fruiting body development of mushrooms. Hence, by adjusting various factors like temperature, light, media composition production of mushrooms can be increased.
2. Carlilie ML, Watkinson SC, Gooday GW. The fungi. Academic Press, UK; 2001.
3. Chang ST, Miles PG. Mushroom biology-a new medicine. Mycologist 1992;6:64-5.
4. Adriano FT, Cruz RA. The chemical composition of Philippines mushroom. Philipp J Agric Food Chem 1993;4:1-11.
5. Andrae T, Borcher S, Stern JS, Hackman RM, Keen CL, Gershwin ME, et al. Mushrooms, tumors and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;221:281-93.
6. FAO. Food composition for use in East Asia Food Policy and Nutrition Division. Food Agriculture, U. N Rome; 1972. Available from: www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6878e/ X6878E33.htm#grp2. [Last accessed on 10 Apr 2017]
7. Tripathy SS, Rajoriya A, Mahapatra A, Gupta N. Biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms used for food by tribal of eastern India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:194-9.
8. Daba AS, Ezeronye OU. Anti-cancer effect of polysaccharides isolated from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. Afr J Biotechnol 2003;2:672-8.
9. Szeto M. Coriolus versicolor extracts: relevance in cancer management. Curr Oncol 2007;14:41-7.
10. Maji P, Chatterjee R, Choudhury BP, Chatterji U, Ganguly J. Enhanced p53-dependent growth inhibition of human glioblastoma cells by combinatorial treatment of temozolomide and novel purified natural carbohydrate of Pleurotus florida. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:189-93.
11. Rohan. Mushroom Market worth $50,034.12 million by; 2019. Available from:www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/ mushroom.asp. [Last accessed on 19 Jun 2017]
12. Scrase RJ, Elliott TJ. Biology and technology of mushroom culture. Microbiol Fermented Food 1998;2:543-84.
13. Flegg PB, Wood DA. Growth and fruiting. In: Flegg PB, Spencer DM, Wood DA. The biology and technology of the cultivated mushroom. Wiley, London; 1985. p. 141-77.
14. Williams MAJ, Beckett A, Read ND. Ultrastructural aspects of fruit body differentiation in Flamminula velutipes. In: Moore D, Casselton LA, Wood DA, Frankland JC. Eds. Developmental biology of higher fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1985. p. 429-50.
15. Kues U. Life history and developmental processes in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2000;64:316-53.
16. Danell E, Camacho FJ. Successful cultivation of the golden chanterelle. Nature 1997;385:303.
17. Iwase K. Cultivation of mycorrhizal mushrooms. Food Rev Int 1997;13:431-42.
18. Eastwood DC, Herman B, Noble R, Dobrovin-Pemington A, Sreenivasaprasad S, Burton KS. Environmental regulation of reproductive phage change in Agaricus bisporus by 1-octen-3-ol, temperature and CO2. Fungal Gen Biol 2013;55:54-6.
19. Kues U, Liu Y. Fruiting body production in basidiomycetes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2000;54:141-52.
20. Chang ST, Miles PG. Mushroomsâ€“cultivation, nutritional value, medical effect, and environmental impact. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004. p. 2-3,19,68-9,95,136-37,255,315-19,426.
21. Kinugawa K. Physiology and the breeding of Flammulina velutipes. Genetics and breeding of edible mushrooms. Gordan Breach Sci 1993. p. 87-109.
22. Wessels JGH. Fruiting in higher fungi. Adv Microb Physiol 1993;34:147-202.
23. Milkwood. Mushrooms Growers Handbook 1: Oyster mushroom cultivation, San Francisco CA, www.mushworld.com. Available from: www.mushworld.com. 2004. [Last accessed on 19 Jun 2017]
24. Hoa HT, Wang C. The effects of temperature and nutritional conditions on mycelium growth of two oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus). Mycobiology 2015;43:14-3.
25. Ohga S. Effect of water potential on fruit body formation of Lentinula edodes in the sawdust based substrate. J Wood Sci 1999;45:337-42.
26. De Groot PWJ, Visser J, Van Griensven LJLD, Schapp PJ. Biochemical and molecular aspects of growth and fruiting of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Mycol Res 1998;102:1297-308.
27. Frey-Klett P, Burlinson P, Deveau A, Barret M, Tarkka M, Sarniguet A. Bacterial-fungal interactions: hyphens between agricultural, clinical, environmental, and food microbiologists. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2011;75:583-609.
28. Deveau A, Brule C, Palin B, Champmartin D, Rubini P, Garbaye J, et al. Role of fungal trehalose and bacterial thiamine in the improved survival and growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238N and the helper bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6R8. Environ Microbiol 2010;2:560-8.
29. Grewal S, Rainey P. Phenotypic variation of Pseudomonas putida and P. tolaasii affects the chemotactic response to Agaricus bisporus mycelial exudates. J Gen Microbiol 1991;137:2761-8.
30. Sepcic K, Batista U, Vacelet J, Macek P, Turk T. Biological activities of aqueous extracts from marine sponges and cytotoxic effect of 3-alkyl pyridinium polymers from Reneira sarai. Comp Biochem Physiol 1997;117:47-3.
31. Malovrh P, Sepcic K, Turk T, Macek P. Characterisation of haemolytic activity of 3-alkylpyridinium polymers from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. Comp Biochem Physiol 1999;124C:221-6.
32. Sepcic K, Marcel V, Klaebe A, Turk T, Suput D, Fournier D. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by an alkyl pyridinium polymer from the marine sponge, Reniera sarai. Biochim Biophysica Acta 1998;1387:217-25.
33. Chelossi E, Mancini I, Sepcic C, Turk T, Faimali M. Comparative antibacterial activity of polymeric 3-alkylpyridinium salts isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai and their synthetic analogues. Biomol Eng 2006;23:317-23.
34. Eger G. The action of light and other factors on sporophore initiation in Pleurotus ostreatus. Mush Sci 1976;9:575-83.
35. Berne S, Pohleven J, Vidic I, Rebolj K, Pohleven F, Turk T, et al. Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Mycol Res 2007;111:1431-6.
36. Madelin MF. Studies on the nutrition of Coprinus lagopus, especially as affecting fruiting. Ann Bot 1956;20:467-80.
37. Walser PJ, Hollenstein M, Klaus MJ, Kues U. Genetic analysis of basidiomycete fungi. Molecular and cell biology of filamentous fungi: a practical approach. Oxford University Press; 2001.
38. Moore D. Fungal morphogenesis. Cambridge University Press: New York; 1998.
39. Stoop JMH, Mooibroek H. Advances in genetic analysis and biotechnology of the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1999;52:474-83.
40. Ohga S. Comparison of extracellular enzyme activities among different strains of Lentinus edodes grown on sawdust based cultures in relationship to their fruiting abilities. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 1992;38:310-6.
41. Suguimoto HH, Barbosa AM, Dekker RF, Castro-Gomez RJ. Veratryl alcohol stimulates fruiting body formation in the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus FEMS. Microbiol Lett 2001;194:235-8.