Emmanuel O. Olorunsola, Musiliu O. Adedokun, Ekaete I. Akpabio


Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate callinectes chitosan as a superdisintegrant in tablet formulation; superdisintegrants are incorporated into tablets at concentrations below 5% of tablet weight to effect prompt break-up of tablets after administration.

Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shells of Callinectes gladiator. The polymer was characterized and then used as a disintegrant (in comparison with Ac-Di-Sol® and corn starch) at concentrations of 2, 4 and 8% for the formulation of metronidazole tablets. The micromeritic properties of granules; and mechanical and release properties of the tablets were studied.

Results: A yield of 36.7% chitosan having degree of deacetylation of 62.7% was obtained from the crab shell. Fourier Transform Infrared absorption bands at 1495 and 3240 cm-1 typical of N-H bending and stretching respectively; and endothermic peak of 159 °C typical of melting of chitosan were obtained. No adverse interaction between the chitosan and metronidazole was observed. The disintegration times of tablets containing 2, 4 and 8% chitosan were 12.2, 10.4 and 9.3 min respectively.

Conclusion: Callinectes chitosan is suitable for use as a superdisintegrant in tablets. It appears to be superior to corn starch as disintegrant although less effective compared to Ac-Di-Sol®. However, the relative cheapness and ready availability of chitosan would make it to be preferred to Ac-Di-Sol®.


Callinectes gladiator, Chitosan, Metronidazole, Superdisintegrant

| PDF | HTML |


Moreton RC. Excipient functionality. Pharm Technol 2004;98:99-119.

Himanshu D, Chandrashekhara S, Nagesh C, Amol M, Shridhar U. Superdisintegrant: a recent investigation and current approach. Asia J Pharm Technol 2012;2:19-25.

Wang QZ, Chen XG, Liu N, Wang SX, Liu CS, Meng XH, et al. Protonation constant of chitosan with different molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Carbohydr Polym 2006;65:194–201.

Sonia TA, Sharma CP. Chitosan and its derivatives for drug delivery. Adv Polym Sci 2011;243:23–54.

Ritthide GC, Chomto P, Pummangura S, Menasveta P. Chitin and chitosan as disintegrants in paracetamol tablets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1994;20:2109-34.

Jimoh AA, Ndimele PE, Lemomu IP, Shittu UA. The biology of gladiator swim crab (Callinectes Pallidus) from Ojo creek, Southern Nigeria. J Fish Aqua Sci 2014;9:157-69.

Akin-Oriola G, Anetekhai M, Olowonirejuaro K. Morphometric and meristic studies in two crabs: Cardiosoma armatum and Callinectes pallidus. Turk J Fish Aqua Sci 2005;5:85-9.

Okafor FC. The ecology of Sudanonautes africanus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in Southeastern Nigeria. Trop Ecol 1988;29:89-97.

Ejike C. Macrofibres in the cuticles of the crab Callinectes gladiator (Benedict). Zool J Linn Soc 1973;53:253-5.

Olorunsola EO, Uwah TO, Olayemi OJ, Etukudo UB. Ex-vivo evaluation of crab shell chitosan as absorption enhancer in ciprofloxacin tablet formulation. Afr J Biotehnol 2016;15:1930–5.

Onyishi IV, Chime SA, Ugwu JC. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived from Xanthosoma sagittifolium in metronidazole tablets. Afr J Biotechnol 2013;12:3064-70.

Bi Y, Sunada H, Yonezawa Y. Preparation and evaluation of a compressed tablet rapidly disintegrating in the oral cavity. Chem Pharm Bull 1996;44:2121-7.

Borriand A, Rinaudo M. Preparation and characterization of fully deacetylated chitosan. Int J Biol Macromol 1983;2:100-51.

Damodar R, Movva B. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of Metformin HCl tablets containing sustained release beads for increasing therapeutic window. J Bioequivalence Bioavailability 2014;6:91-5.

No HK, Meyers SP. Preparation and characterization of chitin and chitosan-A review. J Aqua Food Prod Technol 1995;4:27-52.

Green JH, Kramer A. Food processing waste management. West Port: AVI publishing Co.; 1984.

Li Q, Dunn ET, Grandmaison EW, Grosen MFA. Applications and properties of chitosan. J Bioact Comp Polym 1992;7:370-97.

Martino D, Sittinger A, Risbud M. Chitosan: a versatile biopolymer for orthopaedic tissue engineering. Biomaterial 2005;26:5983-90.

Puvvada YH, Vankayalapati H, Sukhavasi S. Extraction of chitin and chitosan from exoskeleton of shrimp for application in the pharmaceutical industry. Int Curr Pharm J 2012;1:258-63.

Coutts RT. Infrared spectroscopy. In: Chatten LG. editor. Pharmaceutical chemistry–instrumental techniques. New Delhi India: CBS Publishers and Distributors PVT Ltd.; 2008. p. 59–125.

Limam Z, Selmi S, Sadok S, El-Abed A. Extraction and characterization of chitin and chitosan from crustacean by-products: Biological and physicochemical properties. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:640–7.

Chung H, Lee E, Lim S. Comparison in glass transition and enthalpy relaxation between native and gelatinized rice starches. Carbohydr Polym 2002;48:287-98.

Horvat M, Mestrovic E, Danilovski A, Craig DMQ. An investigation into the thermal behaviour of a model drug mixture with amorphous trehalose. Int J Pharm 2005;294:1-10.

Iqbal MS, Massey S, Akbar J, Ashraf CM. Thermal analysis of some natural polysaccharides by isoconversion method. Food Chem 2013;140:178-82.

Zhang CH, Zhao BH, Huang Y, Wang Y, Ke XY, Zhao BJ, et al. A novel domperidone hydrogel: Prepararation, characterization, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties. J Drug Delivery 2011;841054:1-9.

Sahu VK, Sharma N, Sahu PK, Saraf SA. Formulation and evaluation of floating mucoadhesive microsphere of novel natural polysaccharide for site specific delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:15-9.

Wells JI, Aulton ME. Pharmaceutical preformulation. In: Aulton ME. editor. The Design and Manufacture of Medicine. 3rd ed. Hungary: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2007. p. 336-60.

Ramu B, Shanmunga PP. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive floating bioadhesive tablet of hydrochlorothiazide. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:150-5.

Aucamp ME, Campus NWVP. Assessment of the tableting properties of chitosan through wet granulation and direct compression formulations. M. Sc. Thesis. Northwest University, Poichefstroom campus, South Africa; 2004.

Gupta GD, Raud RS. Formulation and evaluation of nimesulide dispersible tablets using natural disintegrants. Indian J Pharm Sci 2000;62:339-42.

Caramella C, Columbo P, Conte U, La Manna A. Tablet disintegration update: The dynamic approach. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1987;13:2111-45.

Chaudhary KPR, Rao DS, Sujatha R. Formulation and evaluation of dispersible tablets of poorly soluble drugs. Indian J Pharm Sci 1992;2:31-2.

Guest RT. Croscarmellose sodium. In: Rowe RC, Sheskey PJ, Cook WG, Fenton ME. editors. Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. 7th ed. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press; 2012. p. 224-6.

Siddiqui MN, Garg G, Sharma PK. Fast dissolving tablets-preparation, characterization and evaluation: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2012;4:87-96.

Al-Nuss R, El-Zein H. Enhancement of candesartan cilexetil dissolution rate by using different methods. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:320-6.

About this article




Callinectes gladiator, Chitosan, Metronidazole, Superdisintegrant





Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol. 9, Issue 10, 2017 Page: 111-118

Online ISSN


Authors & Affiliations

Emmanuel O. Olorunsola
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

Musiliu O. Adedokun
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

Ekaete I. Akpabio
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

Article Tools