IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ISOLATED SHIGELLA FLEXNERI AND SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE TO THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI AND PEGANUM HARMALA
Objective: This study represents the first attempt to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Peganum harmala, and Trachyspermum ammi seeds extract against the isolated bacillary dysentery-causing microorganisms.
Methods: T. ammi and P. harmala were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Their antimicrobial activity against the isolated dysentery-causing microorganisms was evaluated using the agar diffusion method.
Results: The antimicrobial activity result showed that, the two isolated bacteria, Shigella flexneri, and Shigella dysenteriae were found to be sensitive to the extract of T. ammi seed with inhibition zones up to 25 mm, compared to the inhibition zone of 20 mm produced by Gentamycin standard drug, this is mainly due to the presence of the different phytochemical in the extract such as tannin, flavonoids, terpenoids which are well known for their antimicrobial effects. The two isolated bacteria were found to be insensitive (zero mm) to P. harmala extract, Amoxicillin, and Amoclan (Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) standard drugs, this is due to the fact that, the phytochemicals constituents of P. harmala possess the antagonistic effect to each other’s. Addition to; these bacteria became resistant to both Amoxicillin and Amoclan.
Conclusion: From the results it concludes, T. ammi seeds extract had a considerable level of antimicrobial activity against bacillary dysentery-causing microorganisms resistant to Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid drugs.