ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE EFFECTS OF AN ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF THE HYDRO-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA (L) GAERTN
Objective: Synedrella nodiflora is traditionally used in the treatment of several ailments. Pharmacologically, this plant has anticonvulsant, sedative, anti-nociceptive and anti-proliferative effects. This study further investigated S. nodiflora for its antioxidant and in vitro inhibition of cancerous cell lines.
Methods: Phytochemical assays, and the DPPH radical scavenging method were employed in preliminary screening for antioxidant activities of the crude hydro-ethanolic extract (SNE) and resulting fractions. The potent ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), was further investigated for total phenol and flavonoid contents, reducing power, lipid peroxidation potential, and cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer (MCF-7), leukemic (Jurkat), and normal liver (Chang’s liver) cell lines.
Results: The extract contained phenols, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, sterols, terpenoids, and alkaloids. It scavenged for DPPH with an IC50 of 114 µg/ml, whereas that of EAF was 8.9 µg/ml. EAF prevented peroxidation of egg lecithin at an IC50 of 24.01±0.08 µg/ml. These IC50s are four and three times lower than the reference standards. EAF produced anti-proliferative effects against MCF-7, and Jurkat cell lines with IC50s of 205.2 and 170.9 µg/ml, respectively. EAF had a high IC50 of 252.2 µg/ml against Chang’s liver cells. At 0.1 mg/ml EAF had similar total flavonoid content to SNE, but a significantly higher total phenol content.
Conclusion: The ethyl acetate fraction of S. nodiflora, exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity. It inhibited the proliferation of breast and leukemic cancer cell lines, whiles having weak cytotoxic effect on normal liver cells. These can be explored for further drug development.
2. Invasive Species Compendium. Available from: https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/52325 [Last accessed 26 Nov 2019]
3. Amoateng P, Woode E, Kombian SB. Anticonvulsant and related neuropharmacological effects of the whole plant extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae). J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2012;4:140-8.
4. Woode E, Amoateng P, Abotsi WMK. Ethopharmacological analysis of the effects of the whole plant extract of synedrella nodiflora (L.) gaertn (Asteraceae) in murine models. Pharm Sin 2011;2:54-67.
5. Amoateng P, Assumeng Koffuor G, Sarpong K, Oteng Agyapong K. Free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effects of a hydro-ethanolic extract of the whole plant of synedrella nodiflora (L.) gaertn (Asteraceae). Free Rad Antiox 2011;1:70-8.
6. Woode E, Amoateng P, Ansah C, Duwiejua M. Anti-nociceptive effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of synedrella nodiflora (L.) gaertn in mice: involvement of adenosinergic mechanisms. JPT 2009;4:17-29.
7. Amoateng P, Adjei S, Osei Safo D, Ameyaw EO, Ahedor B, N'Guessan BB, et al. A hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn ameliorates hyperalgesia and allodynia in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats. JPCPP 2015;26:383-94.
8. Sanjib R. Antiproliferative activity of allelochemicals present in aqueous extract of synedrella nodiflora (L.) gaertn. In apical meristems and wistar rat bone marrow cells. IOSR J Pharm 2013;3:1-10.
9. Durackova Z. Some current insights into oxidative stress. Physiol Res 2010;59:459-69.
10. Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radical Biol Med 2010;49:1603-16.
11. Ma X, Yu H. Global burden of cancer. Yale J Biol Med 2006;79:85-94.
12. Klaunig JE, Kamendulis LM, Hocevar BA. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol 2010;38:96-109.
13. Sosa V, Moline T, Somoza R, Paciucci R, Kondoh H, ME L. Oxidative stress and cancer: an overview. Ageing Res Rev 2013;12:376-90.
14. Johnson IT, Williamson G, Musk SR. Anticarcinogenic factors in plant foods: a new class of nutrients? Nutr Res Rev 1994;7:175-204.
15. Sa G, Das T. Anti-cancer effects of curcumin: the cycle of life and death. Cell Div 2008;3:14.
16. Jang M, Cai L, Udeani GO, Slowing KV, Thomas CF, Beecher CW, et al. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science (New York, NY) 1997;275:218-20.
17. Clement MV, Hirpara JL, Chawdhury SH, Pervaiz S. Chemopreventive agent resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes, triggers CD95 signaling-dependent apoptosis in human tumor cells. Blood 1998;92:996-1002.
18. Gul Mir Z, Bhakshu LM, Ahmad F, Kondapi AK, Qureshi IA, Ghazi IA. Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays. BMC Complem Altern Med 2011;11:64.
19. Gul MZ, Ahmad F, Kondapi AK, Qureshi IA, IA G. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Abrus precatorius leaf extracts-an in vitro study. BMC Complem Altern Med 2013;13:53.
20. Khanapur M, Avadhanula RK, Setty OH. In vitro antioxidant, antiproliferative, and phytochemical study in different extracts of nyctanthes arbortristis flowers. BioMed Res Int 2014;2014:1-0.
21. Jimenez Estrada M, Velazquez Contreras C, Garibay Escobar A, Sierras-Canchola D, Lapizco Vazquez R, Ortiz Sandoval C, et al. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of plants of the ethnopharmacopeia from northwest of Mexico. BMC Complem Altern Med 2013;13:12.
22. Evans WC. Trease and evans pharmacognosy. 16th edn. London: Saunders Publishers; 2009.
23. Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicinal in Africa. 2 edn. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd; 1993.
24. Evans WC. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy. 15 edn. Edinburgh: Saunders Ltd; 2002.
25. Amarowicz R, Troszynska A, Shahidi F. Antioxidant activity of almond seed extract and its fractions. J Food Lipids 2005;12:344-58.
26. Ham YM, Yoon WJ, Park SY, Jung YH, Kim D, Jeon YJ, et al. Investigation of the component of Lycopodium serratum extract that inhibits proliferation and mediates apoptosis of human HL-60 leukemia cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2012;50:2629-34.
27. Apprey C, Larbie C, Arthur FKN, Appiah Opong R, Annan RA, Tuffour I. Anti-proliferative effect of Isoflavones Isolated from soybean and soymilk powder on lymphoma (DG 75) and leukemia (CEM) cell lines. Br J Pharm Res 2015;7:206-16.
28. Motulsky HJ, Christopoulos A. Fitting model to biological data using linear and nonlinear regression. A practical guide to curve fitting. San Diego CA: GraphPad Software Inc; 2003.
29. Miller JR. GraphPad Version 4.0. step-by-step examples. GraphPad Software Inc, San Diego CA. In; 2003.
30. Fitrotunnisa Q, Arsianti A, Tejaputri NA, Qorina F. Antioxidative activity and phytochemistry profile of hibiscus sabdariffa herb extracts. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:29-32.
31. Martin Rathi J, Gopalakrishnan S. Insecticidal activity of aerial parts of syndrella nodiflora gaertn (Compositae) on spodoptera litura (Fab). J Cent Eur Agric 2006;7:289-96.
32. Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 2004;74:2157-84.
33. Dekkers JC, van Doornen LJP, Kemper HCG. The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med 1996;21:213-38.
34. Clarkson PM. Antioxidants and physical performance. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1995;35:131-41.
35. Ismail A, Marjan ZM, Foong CW. Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chem 2004;87:581-6.
36. Skandrani I, Boubaker J, Bouhlel I, Limem I, Ghedira K, Chekir Ghedira L. Leaf and root extracts of Moricandia arvensis protect against DNA damage in human lymphoblast cell K562 and enhance antioxidant activity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2010;30:61-7.
37. Kang H, Mansel RE, Jiang WG. Genetic manipulation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 attests the pivotal role of the autocrine SDF-1-CXCR4 pathway in the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol 2005;26:1429-34.
38. Seidel V, Verholle M, Malard Y, Tillequin F, Fruchart JC, Duriez P, et al. Phenylpropanoids from ballota nigra L. inhibit in vitro LDL peroxidation. Phytother Res 2000;14:93-8.
39. Soobrattee MA, Neergheen VS, Luximon Ramma A, Aruoma OI, Bahorun T. Phenolics as potential antioxidant therapeutic agents: mechanism and actions. Mutat Res Fund Mol M 2005;579:200-13.
40. Wijaya S, Nee T, Jin KT, Hon LK, San LH, Wiart C. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of synedrella nodiflora (L.) gaertn. (Asteraceae). J Complement Integrt Med 2011;8:13.
41. Krings U, Berger RG. Antioxidant activity of some roasted foods. Food Chem 2001;72:223-9.
42. Cho J, Kim HM, Ryu JH, Jeong SY, Lee YS, Jin C. Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the ethyl acetate fraction prepared from Tussilago farfara L. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:455-60.
43. Sowndhararajan K, Kang SC. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia ferruginea DC. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;148:175-81.
44. Arulpriya P, Lalitha P, Hemalatha S. In vitro antioxidant testing of the extracts of Samanea saman (Jacq.) merr. Chem Sin 2010;1:73-9.
45. Niki E, Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Noguchi N. Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochem Bioph Res Co 2005;338:668-76.
46. Holliday DL, Speirs V. Choosing the right cell line for breast cancer research. Breast Cancer Res 2011;13:215.
47. Soule HD, Vazguez J, Long A, Albert S, Brennan M. A human cell line from a pleural effusion derived from breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1973;51:1409-16.
48. Levenson AS, Jordan VC. MCF-7: the first hormone-responsive breast cancer cell line. Cancer Res 1997;57:3071-8.
49. Schneider U, Schwenk HU, Bornkamm G. Characterization of EBV?genome negative “null” and “T” cell lines derived from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and leukemic transformed non?hodgkin lymphoma. IJC 1977;9:621-6.
50. Lotha R, Sivasubramanian A. Flavonoids nutraceuticals in prevention and treatment of cancer: a review. AJPCR 2018;11:42-7.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.