An Emerging Aquatic Green Gold For Food And Medicine: A Review of Algae from North East India

  • Jinumethi Department of Biotechnology Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam


Given that proper nutrition is a growing concern for rising global populations, sustainable sources of nutritional value are needed. The food product or food derived from nutrients is called nutraceuticals which not only rarely supplement food but also make the treatment or prevention of a disorder and/or disease. Algae are a diverse community of autotrophic organisms with the capable of fix atmospheric CO2, efficiently use light energy, ability to grow rapidly and compare to vascular plants, an algae produce more biomass per acre. More than two thousand years, algae are used for the treatment of different ailments and also used as a potential source of food. Due to the characteristics of rapid growth and capable of producing diverse nutritional compound, algae are largely used in nutraceuticals field. These autotrophic organisms are highly desired for use in nutraceuticals and nutritional supplements because of the diverse nutritional components that algae can generate and concentrate, along with their simple and rapid growth characteristics. Many kinds of algae have reported health benefits from improving the immune system to combat cancer and heart disease. From these backgrounds, this current review aims to evaluate the health-promoting effect of Chlorella,

Keywords: Algae, Autotrophic, Health benefits, Nutraceuticals, Nutritional components, North East India


Download data is not yet available.


1. Nilesh Hemantkumar J, Ilza Rahimbhai M. Microalgae and Its Use in Nutraceuticals and Food Supplements. In: Microalgae - From Physiology to Application IntechOpen; 2020.
2. Varfolomeev SD, Wasserman LA. Microalgae as source of biofuel, food, fodder, and medicines. Appl Biochem Microbiol 2011;47(9):789–807.
3. Brown EM, Allsopp PJ, Magee PJ, Gill CIR, Nitecki S, Strain CR, et al. Seaweed and human health. Nutr Rev 2014;72(3):205–16.
4. Yaakob Z, Ali E, Zainal A, Mohamad M, Takriff MS. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture. J Biol Res 2014;21(1):6.
5. Jena M, Adhikary SP. Chlorococcales (Chlorophyceae) of eastern and north-eastern states of India. ALGAE-INCHON- 2007;22(3):167.
6. Wadmare N, Roy S, Kociolek JP, Karthick B. Two new aerophilic species of Stauroneis Ehrenberg (Bacillariophyta) from the Eastern Himalayas. Bot Lett 2019;166(2):234–45.
7. Dixit A, Kumar N, Kumar S, Trigun V. Antimicrobial resistance: Progress in the decade since emergence of New Delhi metallo- -lactamase in India. Indian J community Med Off Publ Indian Assoc Prev Soc Med 2019;44(1):4.
8. Astarita G, Langridge J. An emerging role for metabolomics in nutrition science. Lifestyle Genomics 2013;6(4–5):181–200.
9. Baruah PP, Baruah R, Das P. A preliminary study on diversity and distribution of Spirulina, Arthrospira and Glaucospira (Cyanobacteria) in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam (India). Feddes Repert 2014;125(3 4):85–92.
10. Bishop WM, Zubeck HM. Evaluation of microalgae for use as nutraceuticals and nutritional supplements. J Nutr Food Sci 2012;2(5):1–6.
11. Huang C, Zhang Z, Cui W. Marine-derived natural compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Mar Drugs 2019;17(4):221.
12. Richmond A, Hu Q. Handbook of microalgal culture: applied phycology and biotechnology [Internet]. John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
13. Reyna-Martinez R, Gomez-Flores R, Lopez-Chuken U, Quintanilla-Licea R, Caballero-Hernandez D, Rodreguez-Padilla C, et al. Antitumor activity of Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus sp. microalgae native of Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. PeerJ 2018;6:e4358.
14. Ryu NH, Lim Y, Park JE, Kim J, Kim JY, Kwon SW, et al. Impact of daily Chlorella consumption on serum lipid and carotenoid profiles in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 2014;13(1):57.
15. Medina Jaritz NB, Carmona Ugalde LF, Lopez Cedillo JC, Leon F SLR De. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from Dunaliella salina and Chlorella vulgaris [Internet]. Wiley Online Library; 2013.
16. Kitada K, Machmudah S, Sasaki M, Goto M, Nakashima Y, Kumamoto S, et al. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of nutraceutical compounds from Chlorella vulgaris extracted in hydrothermal condition. Sep Sci Technol 2009;44(5):1228–39.
17. Takyar MBT, Khajavi SH, Safari R. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their application in order to extend the shelf life of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets during refrigerated storage. LWT 2019;100:244–9.
18. Samarakoon KW, Ko J-Y, Shah MMR, Lee J-H, Kang M-C, Kwon O-N, et al. In vitro studies of anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of organic solvent extracts from cultured marine microalgae. Algae 2013;28(1):111–9.
19. Sansawa H, Takahashi M, Tsuchikura S, Endo H. Effect of chlorella and its fractions on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life-span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006;52(6):457–66.
20. Kwak JH, Baek SH, Woo Y, Han JK, Kim BG, Kim OY, et al. Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of Natural Killercell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial). Nutr J 2012;11(1):53.
21. Merchant RE, Carmack CA, Wise CM. Nutritional Supplementation withChlorella pyrenoidosa for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study. Phyther Res 2000;14(3):167–73.
22. Merchant RE, Andre CA. A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis. Altern Ther Health Med 2001;7(3):79–92.
23. Ghosh A, Khanra S, Mondal M, Devi TI, Halder G, Tiwari ON, et al. Biochemical characterization of microalgae collected from north east region of India advancing towards the algae based commercial production. Asia Pacific J Chem Eng 2017;12(5):745–54.
24. Devgoswami CR, Kalita MC, Talukdar J, Bora R, Sharma P. Studies on the growth behavior of Chlorella, Haematococcus and Scenedesmus sp. in culture media with different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and carbon dioxide gas. African J Biotechnol 2011;10(61):13128–38.
25. Kumar V, Muthuraj M, Palabhanvi B, Ghoshal AK, Das D. High cell density lipid rich cultivation of a novel microalgal isolate Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG in a single-stage fed-batch mode under mixotrophic condition. Bioresour Technol 2014;170:115–24.
26. Muthuraj M, Kumar V, Palabhanvi B, Das D. Evaluation of indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a cell factory for biodiesel production and scale up in outdoor conditions. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2014;41(3):499–511.
27. Kumar V, Muthuraj M, Palabhanvi B, Das D. Synchronized growth and neutral lipid accumulation in Chlorella sorokiniana FC6 IITG under continuous mode of operation. Bioresour Technol 2016;200:770–9.
28. Palabhanvi B, Muthuraj M, Kumar V, Mukherjee M, Ahlawat S, Das D. Continuous cultivation of lipid rich microalga Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG for improved biodiesel productivity via control variable optimization and substrate driven pH control. Bioresour Technol 2017;224:481–9.
29. Sarkar S, Manna MS, Bhowmick TK, Gayen K. Extraction of chlorophylls and carotenoids from dry and wet biomass of isolated Chlorella Thermophila: Optimization of process parameters and modelling by artificial neural network. Process Biochem 2020;
30. Das B, Deka S. A cost-effective and environmentally sustainable process for phycoremediation of oil field formation water for its safe disposal and reuse. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):15232.
31. Cotas J, Leandro A, Pacheco D, Gonçalves AMM, Pereira L. A Comprehensive Review of the Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Applications of Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta). Life 2020;10(3):19.
32. Mathur M. Bioactive Molecules of Spirulina: A Food Supplement. Bioact Mol Food Ref Ser Phytochem Springer, Cham 2018;
33. Andrade LM, Andrade CJ, Dias M, Nascimento CAO, Mendes MA. Chlorella and Spirulina Microalgae as Sources of Functional Foods. Nutraceuticals, Food Suppl 2018;45–58.
34. Sanzo G Di, Mehariya S, Martino M, Larocca V, Casella P, Chianese S, et al. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of astaxanthin, lutein, and fatty acids from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae. Mar Drugs 2018;16(9):334.
35. Ishaq AG, Matias-Peralta HM, Basri H. Bioactive Compounds from Green Microalga-Scenedesmus and its Potential Applications: A Brief Review. Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci 2016;39(1).
36. Ambati RR, Gogisetty D, Aswathnarayana Gokare R, Ravi S, Bikkina PN, Su Y, et al. Botryococcus as an alternative source of carotenoids and its possible applications an overview. Crit Rev Biotechnol 2018;38(4):541–58.
37. Jerez-Martel I, García-Poza S, Rodríguez-Martel G, Rico M, Afonso-Olivares C, Gómez-Pinchetti JL. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extracts from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria Strains. J Food Qual 2017;2017:1–8.
38. Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Astaxanthin in cardiovascular health and disease. Molecules 2012;17(2):2030–48.
39. Guerin M, Huntley ME, Olaizola M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. TRENDS Biotechnol 2003;21(5):210–6.
40. Dhankhar J, Kadian SS, Sharma A. Astaxanthin: A potential carotenoid. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3(5):1246.
41. Fakhri S, Yosifova Aneva I, Farzaei MH, Sobarzo-Senchez E. The neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin: Therapeutic targets and clinical perspective. Molecules 2019;24(14):2640.
42. Uchiyama K, Naito Y, Hasegawa G, Nakamura N, Takahashi J, Yoshikawa T. Astaxanthin protects -cells against glucose toxicity in diabetic db/db mice. Redox Rep 2002;7(5):290–3.
43. Gurumayum S, Senapati SS. Exploration of Algal Varieties from Panikhaiti Area of Guwahati using Winogradsky Column. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2017;6(3):1195–204.
44. Ramanujam P, Siangbood H. Diversity of algal communities in Umiew River, Meghalaya. Indian Hydrobiol 2009;12:65–73.
45. Devi LB, Rout J. Diversity of soil algae from vegetable crop fields of Cachar district, Assam, India. Indian J Ecol 2018;45(4):689–96.
46. M. Bishop W, M. Zubeck H. Evaluation of Microalgae for use as Nutraceuticals and Nutritional Supplements. J Nutr Food Sci 2012;02(05).
47. Capelli B, Cysewski GR. Potential health benefits of spirulina microalgae. Nutrafoods 2010;9(2):19–26.
48. De M, Halder A, Chakraborty T, Das U, Paul S, De A, et al. Incidence of anemia and effect of nutritional supplementation on women in rural and tribal populations of eastern and north-eastern India. Hematology 2011;16(3):190–2.
49. Ahsan M, Habib B, Parvin M, Huntington TC, Hasan MR. A review on culture, production and use of spirulina as food for humans and feeds for domestic animals. FAO Fish Aquac Circ 2008;
50. Deka SJ, Sarma GC. Preliminary checklist of Oscillatoriaceae (Cyanophyta), Goalpara District, Assam, India. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2011;2(4):430–3.
51. Yasmin F, Buragohain BB, Sarma R. Aquatic Algae from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2015;4(12):297–302.
52. Talukdar J. Influences of dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen sources on growth, total lipid content and calorific value of freshwater oleaginous microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus (Corda) Ralfs. Environ Res Eng Manag 2012;61(3):14–25.
53. Kalita N, Baruah G, Goswami RCD, Talukdar J, Kalita MC. Ankistrodesmus falcatus: a promising candidate for lipid production, its biochemical analysis and strategies to enhance lipid productivity. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 2011;1(4):148–57.
54. Manchanda T, Tyagi R, Sharma DK. Application of nutrient stress conditions for hydrocarbon and oil production by Botryococcus braunii. Biofuels 2019;10(3):271–7.
55. Goswami RCD, Kalita MC. Scenedesmus dimorphus and Scenedesmus quadricauda: two potent indigenous microalgae strains for biomass production and CO2 mitigation A study on their growth behavior and lipid productivity under different concentration of urea as nitrogen source. J Algal Biomass Util 2011;2(4):2–4.
56. Basu S, Roy AS, Mohanty K, Ghoshal AK. Enhanced CO2 sequestration by a novel microalga: Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 isolated from bio-diversity hotspot region of Assam, India. Bioresour Technol 2013;143:369–77.
28 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
Jinumethi. “An Emerging Aquatic Green Gold For Food And Medicine: A Review of Algae from North East India”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 12, Nov. 2020,
Review Article(s)