• ARUN KUMAR Department of Pharmacology, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar 144020, Punjab, India


Ganoderma lucidum is generally called “Lingzhi or Reishi”, and also be a Traditional Chinese medicine utilized in over 2000 y for their better therapeutic activity like antitumor, antiallergenic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, hypotensive, immunomodulator, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antibacterial and many other health benefits. Ganoderma lucidum is one of the oldest herbal remedy found and grow in wide variety parts on deciduous trees (dead/dying tree) specifically in oak, pyrus, maple, elm, willow, sweetgum, magnolia, locust, acer, betula, castanea, coryolus, fagus, populus, plums and other plants species. It also be contains 400 major bioactive chemical constituents include polysaccharides, triterpenoids, polysaccharide-peptide complex, β-glucans, lectins, natural germanium (Ge), adenosine, phenols, steroids, amino acids, lignin, vitamins, nucleotides or nucleosides possesses specific curative properties and formed a wide variety of viable products from Ganoderma fruiting bodies, mycelia, spores i.e. coffee, powder, dietary enhancements, tea, spore items, drinks, syrups, toothpastes, cleansers or creams. Many in vitro or in vivo analyses with regards Ganoderma lucidum evidenced their antitumor activity but some conducted clinical studies are questionable and remains undefined for their antitumor effect. Though, we reviewed and summarized in this article about treatment and various pharmacological mechanism against tumor with respect to extract (polysaccharide and triterpenoid) of Ganoderma lucidum.

Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum, Triterpenoid, Polysaccharide, Anti-tumor, Traditional Chinese medicine


Download data is not yet available.


1. Amdekar S. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi): source of pharmacologically active compounds. C Sciences; 2016. p. 111.
2. Chilton J. Redefining medicinal mushrooms, nammex organic mushroom extracts. Available from: [Last accessed on 20 Nov 2020]
3. Raghavendra. MD-Medical Data 2013;5:253-60.
4. Rupeshkumar M, Chettri U, Jaikumar S, Rathi Bai M, Paarakh PM. Ganoderma lucidum: a review with special emphasis on the treatment of various cancer. J Appl Pharm 2016;8:1-5.
5. Ranjeet Singh, Avneet Pal Singh, Gurpaul Singh Dhingra, Richa Shri. Taxonomy, physicochemical evaluation and chemical investigation of Ganoderma applanatum and G. brownie. Int J Adv Res 2014;2:702-11.
6. Lana Jiang. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom): potential application as health supplement and cosmeceutical ingredients. GJRA 2015;4:124-5.
7. Wachtel Galor S, Yuen J, Buswell JA, Benzie IFF. Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): a medicinal mushroom. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel Galor S. editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): Chapter 9. CRC Press/Taylor andamp; Francis; 2011.
8. Sheena N, Lakshmi B, Janardhan KK. Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2005;4:382-6.
9. Kapoor P, Sharma BM. Studies on different growth parameter of Ganoderma lucidum. IJSET 2014;3:1515-24.
10. Luangharn, Thatsanee. A new record of Ganodermatropicum (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) for Thailand and first assessment of optimum conditions for mycelia production. Myco Keys 2019;51:65-83.
11. Alice W Chen. Natural-log cultivation of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi); 2002.
12. Sharif S, Shahid M, Mushtaq M, Akram S, Rashid A. Wild mushrooms: a potential source of nutritional and antioxidant attributes with acceptable toxicity. Prev Nutr Food Sci 2017;22:124-30.
13. Nahata A. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent medicinal mushroom with numerous health benefits. Pharm Anal Acta 2013;4:e159.
14. Roy Upton Herbalist, Cathirose Petrone, Alison Graff, Diana Swisher. editors. Reishi Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) standards of analysis, quality control, and therapeutics. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and therapeutic compendium; 2006.
15. Khine Kyi Oo, Aye Aye Tun. A study on some chemical constituents of Ganoderma Lucidum Leyss Ex Fr p Karst (vifZD; rId) from pyin-oo-lwin area. J Myan Acad Arts AMP Sci 2005;3:237-48.
16. Solomon P Wasser. Reishi or Ling Zhi (Ganoderma lucidum). Encycl Diet Suppl 2005. p. 603-22. DOI:10.1081/E-EDS-120022119.
17. Wen TC. Current status of global ganoderma cultivation, products, industry and market. Mycosphere 2018;9:1025–52.
18. Deepalakshmi K, Mirunalini S. Therapeutic properties and current medical usage of medicinal mushroom: Ganoderma lucidum. IJPSR 2011;2:1922-9.
19. Temitope O Lawal, Sheila M Wicks, Gail B Mahady. Ganoderma lucidum (Ling-zhi): the impact of chemistry on biological activity in cancer. Curr Bioact Compd 2017;13:28-40.
20. Bhat ZAB, Abdul Hamid Wani, Mohd Yaqub Bhat, Abdul Rashid Malik. Major bioactive triterpenoids from ganoderma species and their therapeutic activity: a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:22-30.
21. Cor D, Knez Z, Knez Hrncic M. Antitumour, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase effect of Ganoderma Lucidum terpenoids and polysaccharides: a review. Molecules 2018;23:649.
22. Siwulski M, Sobieralski K, Golak-Siwulska I, Sokol S, Agnieszka S. Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) Karst.-health-promoting properties. Herba Polonica 2015;61:105-18.
23. Benkeblia N. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and terpenoids: profile and health benefits. J Food Nutr Diete 2015;1:101.
24. Yang Y, Zhang H, Zuo J. Advances in research on the active constituents and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum. Biomed Dermatol 2019;3:6.
25. Bishop KS, Kao CH, Xu Y, Glucina MP, Paterson RR, Ferguson LR. From 2000 y of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments in nutraceuticals. Phytochemistry 2015;114:56-65.
26. Cheng, Shujie, Daniel Sliva. Ganoderma lucidum for cancer treatment: we are close but still not there. Integrative Cancer Ther 2015;14:249-57.
27. Unlu A, Nayir E, Kirca O, Ozdogan M. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer. J BUON 2016;21:792-8.
28. Zeng P, Guo Z, Zeng X. Chemical, biochemical, preclinical and clinical studies of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide as an approved drug for treating myopathy and other diseases in China. J Cell Mol Med 2018;22:3278-97.
29. Subarna Roy, Miskat Ara Akhter Jahan, Kamal Kanta Das, Saurab Kishore Munshi, Rashed Noor. Artificial cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Medicinal Mushroom) using different sawdusts as substrates. Am J BioSci 2015;3:178-82.
30. Singh S, Harsh NSK, Gupta PK. A novel method of economical cultivation of medicinally important mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:2033-7.
31. Obodai, Mary. Chemical characterization and antioxidant potential of wild ganoderma species from ghana. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 2017;22:196.
32. Hennicke F, Cheick Ali Z, Liebisch T. Distinguishing commercially grown Ganoderma lucidum from ganoderma lingzhi from Europe and East Asia on the basis of morphology, molecular phylogeny, and triterpenic acid profiles. Phytochemistry 2016;127:29-37.
33. Carvalho, Csm de. Cultivation and bromatological analysis of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst cultivated in agricultural waste. Afr J Biotechnol 2015;4:412-8.
34. Bhosle S. Taxonomy and diversity of ganoderma from the Western parts of Maharashtra (India). Mycosphere 2010;1:249–62.
35. Berovic M, Habijanic J, Zore I. Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides. J Biotechnol 2003;103:77-86.
36. Gill SK, Rieder MJ. Toxicity of a traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma lucidum, in children with cancer. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2008;15:e275-85.
37. Garuba T, G Olahan, A Lateef, R Alaya, M Awolowo, A Sulyman. Proximate composition and chemical profiles of reishi mushroom (Ganoderma Lucidum 38. Dai Y, Zhou L, Hattori T. Ganoderma lingzhi (Polyporales, Basidiomycota): the scientific binomial for the widely cultivated medicinal fungus Lingzhi. Mycol Progress 2017;16:1051–5.
39. Hahne JC, Meyer SR, Dietl J, Honig A. The effect of cordyceps extract and a mixture of Ganoderma lucidum/Agaricus Blazi Murill extract on human endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro. Int J Oncol 2014;45:373-82.
40. Thawthong, Anan. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) new to Thailand. Myco Keys 2017;22:27-43.
41. Rossi, Paola. B-glucans from Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum in breast cancer: an example of complementary and integrative medicine. Oncotarget 2018;9:24837-56.
42. Wang, Xiaoming. Ganoderma lucidum put forth anti-tumor activity against PC-3 prostate cancer cells via inhibition of Jak-1/STAT-3 activity. Saudi J Biol Sci 2020;27:2632–7.
43. Hsieh, Tze Chen, Joseph M Wu. Suppression of proliferation and oxidative stress by extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. Int J Mol Med 2011;28:1065-9.
44. Dai S, Liu J, Sun X, Wang N. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing VEGF expression and up-regulating the expression of connexin 43. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:434.
45. Yuen JW, Gohel MD, Ng CF. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Bacillus Calmette Guerin on premalignant urothelial HUC-PC cells and its regulation on proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:147896. 2012/147896.
46. Lu Qing-Yi. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth and induce actin polymerization in bladder cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Lett 2004;216:9-20.
47. Hapuarachchi KK, Wen TC, Jeewon R, Wu XL, Kang JC, Hyde KD. Mycosphere Essays 7. Ganoderma lucidum-are the beneficial anticancer properties substantiated? Mycosphere 2016;7:305–32.
48. Paterson RR, Lima N. Biomedical effects of mushrooms with emphasis on pure compounds. Biomed J 2014;37:357–68.
49. Cao Y, Xu X, Liu S, Huang L, Gu J. Ganoderma: a cancer immunotherapy review. Front Pharmacol 2018;9:1217.
50. Reis FS, Lima RT, Morales P, Ferreira IC, Vasconcelos MH. Methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum induces autophagy of AGS human gastric tumor cells. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 2015;20:17872–82.
51. Hui. Apoptosis induced by GanoPoly in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 cells. Afr J Biotechnol 2011;10:18279-84.
52. Sirisidthi K, Kosai P, Jiraungkoorskul W. Antidiabetic activity of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum: a review. S Afr Pharm J 2016;83:45-7.
53. Mohammed A, Adelaiye AB, Abubakar MS, Abdurahman EM. Effects of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats. J Med Plant Res 2007;1:34-7.
54. Moklesur Rahman Sarker. Antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity and antihyperlipidemic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, a dietary mushroom, on alloxan-and glucocorticoid-induced diabetic long-evans rats. Funct Foods Health Dis 2015;5:450-66.
55. Ahmadi Renani S, Fasihi Ramandi M, Ahmadi K. Ganoderma lucidum: a promising anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. J Herb Med Pharmacol 2014;3:67-8.
56. Wang J, Cao B, Zhao H, Feng J. Emerging roles of Ganoderma Lucidum in anti-aging. Aging Dis 2017;8:691-707.
57. Ivanova TS, Krupodorova TA, Barshteyn VY, Artamonova AB, Shlyakhovenko VA. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin. Exp Oncol 2014;36:58-66.
58. Ganoderma Extract Reishi, Ganoderma Lucidum Extract. Available from: product/pvLxzTnEKJfm/China-Ganoderma-Extract-Reishi-Ganoderma-Lucidum-Extract.html [Last accessed on 20 Nov 2020].
59. Shutter Stock, Lingzhi Mushroom. Available from: [Last accessed on 20 Nov 2020].
10 Views | Downloads
How to Cite
KUMAR, A. “GANODERMA LUCIDUM: A TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE USED FOR CURING TUMORS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 13, no. 3, Feb. 2021, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2021v13i3.40614.
Review Article(s)