CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF TWO SOLANUM TUBEROSUM CULTIVARS GROWN IN EGYPT
Keywords:Solanum tuberosum, Antioxidant assays, Oxidative stress, Hepatic function, Kidney function, Alloxan, Chemical composition
Objective: This paper reports a comparative study based on the chemical composition, antioxidant and therapeutic effect of two Egyptian cultivars of Solanum tuberosum; Baraka (STB) and Alpha (STA) on hepatic functions and oxidative stress in alloxan (ALX)-treated rats.
Methods: The potential of cultivars as a source of natural antioxidants were explored using five in vitro assays, and the results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and Trolox. The modulator role of cultivars was assessed by determining its effect on oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxide (LPO) levels, serum aminotransferases and on antioxidative enzymatic activities of glutathione transferases, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, histological examinations of liver, kidney, pancreas and spleen were carried out to confirm the biochemical changes of the diabetic group of rats non-treated and treated with STB, STA and glibenclamide as standard drug.
Results: Our findings demonstrated variations in antioxidant activities of each cultivar. An increase in LPO, aminotransferases levels was observed in the ALX-induced diabetic rats. Administration of each cultivar for four w caused a significant reduction in LPO, serum aminotransferases levels in the ALX-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, a significant improvement in the activities of all the investigated antioxidant enzymes was marked. In addition, the total content of phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, and alkaloids were varied in each cultivar.
Conclusion: STB evidenced remarkable bioactivity compared to that exhibited by STA. Moreover, three known compounds, previously not isolated from Solanum genus, were obtained from the methylene chloride fraction of STB.
Strong K, Mathers C, Epping-Jordan J, Beaglehole R. Preventing chronic disease: a priority for global health. Int J Epidemiol 2005;35:492-4.
Li WL, Zheng HC, Bukuru J, De Kimpe N. Natural medicines used in the traditional Chinese medical system for therapy of diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;92:1-21.
Afifi-Yazar FU, Kasabri V, Abu-Dahab R. Medicinal plants from Jordan in the treatment of diabetes: Traditional uses vs. in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Planta Med 2011;77:1210-20.
Lewis C, Walker J, Lancaster J, Sutton K. Determination of anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids in potatoes. I. Coloured cultivars of Solanum tuberosum L. J Sci Food Agric 1998;77:58-63.
Reyes L, Miller J, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins and total phenolics in purple-and red-fleshed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes. Am J Potato Res 2005;82:271-7.
Kaur C, Kapoor HC. Antiâ€oxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int J Food Sci Tech 2002;37:153-61.
Singh N, Kamath V, Rajini PS. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and associated biochemical parameters in STZ-induced diabetic rats by dietary supplementation of potato peel powder. Clin Chem Acta 2005;353:165â€“75.
Campos D, Noratto G, Chirinos R, Arbizu C, Roca W, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Antioxidant capacity and secondary metabolites in four species of Andean tuber crops: native potato (Solanum sp.), mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & PavÃ³n), Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina) and ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas). J Sci Food Agric 2006;15:1481â€“8.
Andre CM, Ghislain M, Bertin P, Oufir M, Herrera M, Hoffmann L, et al. Andean potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a source of antioxidant and mineral micronutrients. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:366â€“78.
Robert L, Narcy A, Rock E, Demigne C, Mazur A, RÃ©mÃ©sy C. Entire potato consumption improves lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed rat. Eur J Nutr 2006;45:267-74.
Halici Z, Bilen H, Albayrak F, Uyanik A, Cetinkaya R, Suleyman H, et al. Does telmisartan prevent hepatic fibrosis in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes? Eur J Pharmacol 2009;614:146â€“52.
Trinder P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen receptor. Ann Clin Biochem 1969;6:24-7.
Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the Quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;7:248-54.
Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63.
Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochem Biophys Acta 1979;582:67-78.
Buege JA, Aust SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Meth Enzymol 1978;52:302-10.
Moshage H, Kok B, Huizenga JR, Jansen PL. Nitrite and nitrate determinations in plasma: a critical evaluation. Clin Chem 1995;41:892â€“6.
Lubinsky S, Bewley GC. Genetics of catalase in Drosophila melanogaster: Rates of synthesis and degradation of the enzyme in flies aneuploid and euploid for the structural gene. Genetics 1979;91:723â€“42.
Nishikimi M, Rae Na, Yagi K. The occurrence of superoxide anion in the action of reduced phenazine methosulphate and molecular oxygen. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1972;46:849-53.
Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 1967;70:158-69.
Hirsch C, Zouain CS, Alves JB, Goes AM. Induction of protective immunity and modulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity in mice using PIII, an anionic fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm. Parasitol 1997;115:21-8.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaften und Technol 1995;28:25-30.
Oyaizu M, Jpn J. Studies on the product of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Nutr 1986;44:307-15.
Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation as peroxyl radical scavenging effects. Chem Pharmacol Bull 1994;36:2090â€“7.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:1231-7.
Benzie IFF, Strain J. Ferric reducing, antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. J Methods Enzym 1999;299:15â€“27.
Makkar HPS, Becker K, Abel HJ, Pawelzik E. Nutrient contents, rumen protein degradability and antinutritional factors in some colour-and white-flowering cultivars of Vicia faba beans. Pawelzik. J Sci Food Agric 1997;75:511-20.
OrdoÃ±ez AAL, Gomez JD, Vattuone MA, lsla MI. Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz extracts. Food Chem 2006;97:452-8.
Osoro K, Mateos-Sanz A, Frutos P, GarcÄ±Â´a U, Ortega-Mora LM, Ferreira, L MM, et al. Anthelmintic and nutritional effects of heather supplementation on Cashmere goats grazing perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures. J Animal Sci 2007;85:861â€“70.
Francis JF. Analysis of anthocyanins in: Markakis P (Ed) Anthocyanins as good colors, Academic press, London; 1982. p. 181-208.
Lee HJ, Waller GR. Biosynthesis of pyridine alkaloids from Tripterygium wilfordii. Phytochem 1972;11:2233-40.
Camire ME, Kubow S, Donnelly D. Potatoes and human health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49:823-40.
Mahgoub AM, Eisa GSA, Youssef MAH. Molecular, biochemical and anatomical analysis of some potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars growing in Egypt. J Gen Eng Biotechnol 2014. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S1687157X14000377.
Abd-Alla HI, Albalawy MA, Aly HF, Shalaby NM, Shaker AH. Flavone composition and antihypercholesterolemic and antihyperglycemic activities of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Z Naturforsch C 2014;69:199-208.
Szkudelski T. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in Î²-cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res 2001;50:537-46.
Fenercioglu AK, Saler T, Genc E, Sabuncu H, Altuntas Y. The effects of polyphenol-containing antioxidants on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without complications. J Endocrinol Invest 2010;33:118-24.
Shalaby NM, Abd-Alla HI, Aly HF, Albalawy MA, Shaker KH, Bouajila J. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Ducrosia anethifolia Boiss. and its linear furanocoumarins. Bio Med Res Int 2014;2014:1-13.
Ali SA, Hamed MA, El-Rigal NS, Shabana MH, Kassem MSÂ¬. Chemical composition of Argyreia speciosa Fam. Convolvulaceae and its role against hyperglycemia. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:76-84.
Adequate E. Diabetes mellitus-multifactor in aetiology and global in prevalence. Arch Physiol Biochem 2001;109:197-9.
Aslan M, Orhan N, Orhan DD, Ergun F. Hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants traditionally used in Turkey for diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;128:384-9.
Mohamed NZ, Abd-Alla HI, Aly HF, Mantawy M, Ibrahim N, Hassan SA. CCl4-induced hepatonephrotoxicity: protective effect of nutraceuticals on inflammatory factors and antioxidative status in rat. J Appl Pharm Sci 2014;4:87-100.
Al-Saikhan MS, Howard LR, Miller JR. Antioxidant Activity and total phenolics in different genotypes of potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.). J Food Sci 1995;60:341â€“3.
Awad HM, Abd-Alla HI, Mahmoud KH, El-Toumy SA. In vitro anti-nitrosative, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities of plant flavonoids: a comparative study. Med Chem Res 2014;23:915-25.
Halliwell B. Antioxidants: the basics-what they are and how to evaluate them. Adv Pharmacol 1997;38:3-20.
Al-Jaber NA, Awaad AS, Moses JE. Review on some antioxidant plants growing in Arab world. J Saudi Chem Soc 2011;15:293â€“307.
Tang GY, Li XJ, Zhang HY. Antidiabetic components contained in vegetables and legumes. Molecules 2008;13:1189-94.
Perla V, Jayanty SS. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods. Food Chem 2013;138:1574-80.
Jorge AP, Horst H, de Sousa E, Pizzolatti MG, Silva FR. Insulin mimetic effects of kaempferitrin on glycaemia and on 14C-glucose uptake in rat soleus muscle. Chem Biol Interact 2004;149:89-96.
Shalaby NMM, Abd-Alla HI, Hamed MA, Al-Ghamdi SN, Jambi SM. Flavones composition and therapeutic potential of Dodonaea viscosa against liver fibrosis. Int J Phytomed 2012;4:27-39.
Xu X, Li W, Lu Z, Beta T, Hydamaka AW. Phenolic content, composition, antioxidant activity, and their changes during domestic cooking of potatoes. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:10231-8.
Ramdath DD, Padhi E, Hawke A, Sivaramalingam T, Tsao R. The glycaemic index of pigmented potatoes is related to their polyphenol content. Food Funct 2014;5:909-15.
Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Thomas MB. The systematic identification of flavonoids. Springer-Verlag, Berlin; 1970. p. 41â€“164.
Harborne JB, Mabry TJ. The Flavonoid: Advances in research, Chapman and Hall Ltd, London; 1982. p. 1-18.