EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CYANOTIS CRISTATA LEAVES APPLIED TOPICALLY ON WOUND HEALING IN WISTAR RATS


Anurag Pathak, Smita Shenoy, Sushil Kiran, Avinash A, Deepak Nayak, Naveen Kumar Tonse, Amod Tilak, Manjunath Shetty

Abstract


 

 Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Cyanotis cristata leaves when applied topically on healing of wound in Wistar rats.

Methods: C. cristata leaves were evaluated for its effect on healing of wound in three models, namely, incision, excision, and burn wound. Each model included five groups, each consisting of 6 rats. The five groups were as follows: Group I rats (control and ointment base), Group II rats (standard and silver sulfadiazine), and Group III, Group IV, Group V (treated with C. cristata extract ointment of 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively). Variables evaluated included breaking strength in incision wound while it was contraction rate and epithelialization in excision and burn wound. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc test was used to analyze data.

Result: In incision wound, breaking strength in test group was significantly increased (p<0.001) as compared to control. In excision and burn wound of test group, time to epithelialization and contraction rate was significantly decreased (p<0.001). The granulation tissue from excision and burn wound showed increased collagen and less inflammatory cells in test groups in comparison to the control.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of leaves of C. cristata, when applied topically, enhanced wound strength and accelerated healing of incision, excision, and burn wounds in rats.


Keywords


Incision wound, Excision, Burn wound, Breaking strength, Contraction, Epithelialization.

| PDF |

References


Lazarus GS, Cooper DM, Knighton DR, Margolis DJ, Pecoraro RE, Rodeheaver G, et al. Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing. Arch Dermatol 1994;130(4):489-93.

Brown H. Wound healing research through ages. In: Cohen IK, Diegelmann RF, Lindblad WJ, editors. Wound Healing: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. 1st Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 1992. p. 518.

Guo S, Dipietro LA. Factors affecting wound healing. J Dent Res 2010;89(3):219-29.

Vowden P. Hard-to-heal wounds made easy. Int Wound J 2011; 2(4):26. Available from: http://www. woundsinternational. com/media/issues/514/files/content_10140.pdf. [Last cited on 2016 Aug 18].

Tiwari VK. Burn wound: How it differs from other wounds? Indian J Plast Surg 2012;45(2):364-73.

Nitzschke SL, Aden JK, Serio-Melvin ML, Shingleton SK, Chung KK, Waters JA, et al. Wound healing trajectories in burn patients and their impact on mortality. J Burn Care Res 2014;35(6):474-9.

Desai MH, Herndon DN, Broemeling L, Barrow RE, Nichols RJ Jr, Rutan RL. Early burn wound excision significantly reduces blood loss. Ann Surg 1990;211(6):753-9.

Mather WD, Sherman M, Fryezkowski A, Jester JV. Dose dependent effect of epidermal growth factor on corneal wound healing. Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci 1989;30(11):2403-6.

Ehrlich HP, Hunt TK. Effects of cortisone and vitamin A on wound healing. Ann Surg 1968;167(3):324-8.

Raju SS, Kulkarni DR. Vitamin A reverses the wound healing suppressant effect of cyclophosphamide. Indian J Pharmacol 1986;18:154-7.

Lee KH. Studies on the mechanism of action of salicylates 3. Effect of vitamin A on the wound healing retardation action of aspirin. J Pharm Sci 1968;57(7):1238-40.

Udupa SL, Shaila HP, Udupa AL, Ramesh KV, Kulkarni DR. Effect of bothropase on wound healing. Biochem Arch 1991;7:207-12.

William RH, Bissell GW. Effect of topical application of vitamins and some other chemicals on the healing of wound. Arch Surg 1994;49:225-30.

Rao CM, Kumar A, Kulkarni DR. Effects of enfenamic acid and its zinc salt on wound-healing. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1988;32(1):61-6.

Sambrekar SN, Patil PA, Patil S. Wound healing activity of root extracts of Commelina benghalensis Linn. Res J Pharm Technol 2011;4(11):1772-6.

Karthik S, Subramaniam M, Ravikumar S, Dhamotharan R. Medicinal plants and their uses: A study of twelve sacred groves in Cuddalore and Villupuram districts, Tamil Nadu, India. J Res Int Educ 2016;2(5):95-102.

Prabhune AM, Jadhav SN, Kadam DA, Nandikar MD, Aparadh VT. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) and ferric reducing ability (FRAP) of some Commelinaceae members. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2013;2(5):1128-34.

Kharade AS, Jadhav SS, Jadhav SN, Thite SV, Aparadh VT. Phytochemical investigation in Commelinea bengalensis & Cyanotis cristata. Int Res J Pharm Appl Sci 2013;3(1):46-8.

Choudary JP. Wound healing activity of the ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebularetz. Int J Pharm Bio 2011;2(1):48-52.

Anitha S, Suresh GS, Ramaiah M, Vaidya VP. Extraction, isolation and wound healing activity of flavonoid from Coscinium fenestratum. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2011;2(3):1090-5.

Nurdiana S, Marziana N. Wound healing activities of Melastoma malabathricum leaves extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013;20(2):20-3.

Bairy KL, Kumar SM, Savin CG, Kumar KN, Avinash M. Effect of different formulations of silver sulphadiazine cream on experimentally induced burn wound healing. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2012;3:884-9.

Babu G, Sanjeeva R, Bairy KL. Effect of Tridax procumbens on burn wound healing. Indian Drugs 2003;40(8):488-91.

Panda P. Formulation and evaluation of topical dosage form of Pandanus fascularis Lam and their wound healing activity. Drug Interv Today 2010;2(9):417-20.

Morton JJ, Malone MH. Evaluation of vulneray activity by an open wound procedure in rats. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1972;196(1):117-26.

Kumar MS, Kirubanandan S, Sripriya R, Sehgal PK. Triphala promotes healing of infected full-thickness dermal wound. J Surg Res 2008;144(1):94-101.

Shenoy S, Sukesh B, Vinod MS, Shruthi N, Amberkar M, Amuthan A. Effect of ethanolic extract of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf on healing of burn wound in wistar rats. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2012;3(3):32-5.

Gutierrez RM, Solis RV. Wound healing properties of triterpenes from Buddleia scordioides in diabetic rats. Pharm Biol 2008;46(9):647-53.

Kumar V, Abbas K, Fausto N, Aster JC, editors. Tissue renewal, regeneration, and repair. In: Robbins and Cotran Pathological Basis of Disease. 8th ed. Gurgaon: Reed Elsevier India Private Limited; 2011. p. 79-110.

Martin A. The use of antioxidants in healing. Dermatol Surg 1996;22(2):156-60.

Wenk J, Foitzik A, Achterberg V, Sabiwalskiy A, Dissemond J, Meewes C, et al. Selective pick-up of increased iron by deferoxamine coupled cellulose abrogates the iron-driven induction of matrix-degrading metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and lipid peroxidation in human dermal fibroblasts in vitro - A new dressing concept. J Invest Dermatol 2001;116:833-9.

O’Toole EA, Goel M, Woodley DT. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits human keratinocyte migration. Dermatol Surg 1996;22(6):525-9.

Farahpour MR, Emami P, Ghayour SJ. In vitro antioxidant properties and wound healing activity of hydroethanolic turmeric rhizome extract (Zingiberaceae). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(8):474-8.

Ambiga S, Narayanan R, Gowri D, Sukumar D, Madhavan S. Evaluation of wound healing activity of flavonoids from ipomoea carnea Jacq. Anc Sci Life 2007;26(3):45-51.

Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K. Singh V, Banerjee PK, Sawhney RC. Influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Flavones on dermal wound healing in rats. Mol Cell Biochem 2006;290(1-2):193-8.

Stipcevic T, Piljac J, Vanden Berghe D. Effect of different flavonoids on collagen synthesis in human fibroblasts. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2006;61(1):29-34.

de Jesus NZ, de Souza Falcão H, Gomes IF, de Almeida Leite TJ, de Morais Lima GR, Barbosa-Filho JM, et al. Tannins, peptic ulcers and related mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13(3):3203-28.

Li K, Diao Y, Zhang H, Wang S, Zhang Z, Yu B, et al. Tannin extracts from immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Fructus Retz. Promote cutaneous wound healing in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:86.

Pastar I, Stojadinovic O, Yin NC, Ramirez H, Nusbaum AG, Sawaya A, et al. Epithelialization in wound healing: A comprehensive review. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2014;3(7):445-64.

Bui NT, Ho MT, Kim YM, Lim Y, Cho M. Flavonoids promoting HaCaT migration: II. Molecular mechanism of 4’,6,7-trimethoxyisoflavone via NOX2 activation. Phytomedicine 2014;21(4):570-7.

Cohen IK, Diegelmann RF, Lindblad WJ. Wound Healing: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 1992. p. 344-55.

Mendonça RJ, Coutinho-Netto J. Cellular aspects of wound healing. An Bras Dermatol 2009;84(3):257-62.

Ehrlich HP, Hunt TK. Collagen organization critical role in wound contraction. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2012;1(1):3-9.

Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. ScientificWorldJournal 2013;2013:162750.

Chung KT, Wong TY, Wei CI, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1998;38(6):421-64.

Sukantha TA, Shubashini KS, Ravindran NT. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plant in traditional treatment of wound infection in southeast India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(11):511-3.

Thakur R, Jain N, Pathak R, Sandhu SS. Practices in wound healing studies of plants. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:438056.

Demlin RH. Burns and other thermal injuries. In: LW GM, editorsCurrent Surgical Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, USA: McGraw Hill; p. 267-6.

Hoekstra MJ, Andrews L. Effect of silver sulfadiazine on histopathologic parameters of burn wound in pig. Burns 2003;29:544-7.

La L, Jiang X, Huo Q. The preparation of collagen burn pellicle of compound sulfadiazine silver and assessment of its efficacy in an animal experiment on deep partial thickness burn wound. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2001;32(3):419-23.

Lal S, Barrow RE, Wolf SE, Chinkes DL, Hart DW, Heggers JP, et al. Biobrane improves wound healing in burned children without increased risk of infection. Shock 2000;14(3):314-8.




About this article

Title

EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CYANOTIS CRISTATA LEAVES APPLIED TOPICALLY ON WOUND HEALING IN WISTAR RATS

Keywords

Incision wound, Excision, Burn wound, Breaking strength, Contraction, Epithelialization.

DOI

10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i12.20731

Date

01-12-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Vol 10 Issue 12 December 2017 Page: 63-67

Print ISSN

0974-2441

Online ISSN

2455-3891

Statistics

21 Views | 51 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Anurag Pathak
Postgraduate, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104
India

Smita Shenoy
Additional Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka – 576104
India

Sushil Kiran
Postgraduate, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104
India

Avinash A
Postgraduate, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104
India

Deepak Nayak
Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104
India

Naveen Kumar Tonse
Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104
India

Amod Tilak
Postgraduate, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka - 576104
India

Manjunath Shetty
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, Manipal University, Karnataka – 576104
India


Article Tools


Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.