THE EFFECT OF HYDROLYZED VIRGIN COCONUT OIL ON LIPID PROFILE AND LIVER ENZYMES IN DYSLIPIDEMIC RATS
Keywords:Virgin coconut oil, Hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Dyslipidemia, Lipid profile, Liver enzymes
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and hydrolyzed VCO (HVCO) on lipid profile and liver enzymes in dyslipidemic rats.
Methods: VCO was hydrolyzed using lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (active on sn-1,3 position). Thirty male rats (150â€“200 g) were induced with 2 ml/kg body weight (BW) egg yolk and lard oil twice a day for 30 days. Rats were divided into six groups which were given with sodium carboxymethylcellulose 0.5%, atorvastatin, VCO (4 and 6 ml/kg BW), and HVCO (4 and 6 ml/kg BW). Lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver enzymes including serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were measured after 14 days of treatment.
Results: The results of this study show that VCO and HVCO improve lipid profile (decrease in TC, TG, LDL-C, and VLDL-C, but increase in HDL-C). VCO and HVCO also lower atherogenic index, TC/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, SGOT, and SGPT. Result shows that HVCO improves lipid profile and liver enzymes better than VCO does.
Conclusion: VCO and HVCO improve lipid profile in dyslipidemic rats, not atherogenic, and not toxic to the liver. HVCO causes better lipid profile improvement, especially with 6 ml/kg BW dosage.
Bawalan DD, Chapman KR. Virgin Coconut Oil Production Manual for Micro-and Village-Scale Processing. Bangkok: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; 2006.
Fife B. Virgin Coconut oil: Natureâ€™s Miracle Medicine. Colorado Springs: Piccadilly Books, Ltd.; 2006.
Enig M. Health and Nutritional Benefits from Coconut Oil: An Important Functional Food for the 21st Century. Ho Chi Min City, Vietnam: AVOC (Asian Vegetable Oils Club) Lauric Oils Symposium; 1996.
Man YB, Manaf MA. Medium-chain triacylglycerols. In: Shahidi F, editor. Nutraceutical and Specialty Lipids and their Co-Products. USA: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.; 2006. p. 27-56.
Bach AC, Babayan VK. Medium-chain triglycerides: An update. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:950-62.
Fife B. The Coconut Oil Miracle. New York: Penguin Group (USA), Inc.; 2004.
Fife B. Health properties of coconut oil. Agro Food Industry Hi Tech 2013;24:5-7.
Vala GS, Kapadiya PK. Medicinal benefits of coconut oil. Int J Life Sci Res 2014;2:124-6.
Siddalingaswamy M, Rayaorth A, Khanum F. Anti-diabetic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil. J Diabetes Mellitus 2011;1:118-23.
Mohammed A, Luka CD. Effect of coconut oil, coconut water and palm kernel oil on some biochemical parameters in albino rats. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci 2013;6:56-9.
Akinnuga AM, Jeje SO, Bamidele O, Sunday VE. Dietary consumption of virgin coconut oil ameliorates lipid profiles in diabetic rats. Physiol J 2014;5:Article ID: 495926.
Kolondam BJ, Pokatong WDR, Tallei TE. Triglyceride and cholesterol level of Wistar rat (Rattus novergicus) after consumption of virgin coconut oil. Biosainstifika 2008;1:35-44. Indonesian.
Elsayed HH, Elrahman MK, Emara AH, El-Hafez AA. Compare effect of fatty acid composition (olive, coconut oil and butter) on adipose liver tissue, and serum lipid profile in albino rats. Int J Biochem Biotechnol 2015;1:28-38.
Essien NM, Bassey SC, Nna VU, Ofem OE. Comparative effect of chronic consumption of some edible vegetable oils on lipid profile and some haematological parameters in rats. Ann Biol Res 2014;5:16-21.
Silalahi J, Permata YM, Putra ED. Antibacterial activity of hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:90-4.
Elysa E, Harahap U, Silalahi J. Antibacterial activity of enzymatic hydrolysis of virgin coconut oil against salmonella. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:589-99.
Sihombing NT, Silalahi J, Suryanto D. Antibacterial activity of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extracts and virgin coconut oil and their combination against Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8939. Int J ChemTech Res 2014;6:2774-82.
Loung FS, Silalahi J, Suryanto D. Antibacterial activity of enzymatic hydrolyzed of virgin coconut oil and palm kernel oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypii and Escherichia coli. Int J PharmTech Res 2014;6:628-33.
Margata L, Silalahi J, Harahap U, Satria D. The effect of dietary oils and hydrolyzed coconut oil on minerals absorption in rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:185-90.
Fatimah F, Gugule S, Layuk P. Pemanfaatan VCO Sebagai Bahan Dasar Produk Pangan Fungsional. Jakarta: Badan Litbang Pertanian; 2009. Available from: http://www.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ks/one/355/ file/pemanfaatan-vco-sebagai-ba.pdf Indonesia. [Last cited on 2015 Aug 07].
Hassan S, El-Twab SA, Hetta M, Mahmoud B. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca linnaeus. Saudi J Biol Sci 2011;18:333-40.
Hall IH. In: Paoletti R, Kritchevsky D, Holmes WL, editors. Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism. Berlin: Springer; 1987. p. 451.
Reddy NV, Raj P, Raju G, Anarthe SJ. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cassia fistula bark using high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:61-4.
Khosla I, Khosla GC. Saturated fats and cardiovascular disease risk: A review. J Clin Prev Cardiol 2017;6:56-9.
Marten B, Pfeuffer M, Schrezenmeir J. Medium-chain triglycerides. Int Dairy J 2006;16:1374-82.
Scrimgeour C. Chemistry of fatty acids. In: Shahidi F, editor. Baileyâ€™s Industrial oil and Fat Products. 6th ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005. p. 1-43.
Silalahi J, Nurbaya S. Composition, distribution and atherogenicity of fatty acid in coconut and palm oils. J Indon Med Assoc 2011;61:453-7.
Shelke S, Khairnar A, Rathod V, Kalawane Y, Jagtap A. Review on antihyperlipidemia lipophilic drugs and their novel formulation approaches. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:1-8.
Niroumand S, Khajedaluee M, Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Abrishami M, Juya M, Khodaee G, et al. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP): A marker of cardiovascular disease. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015;29:240.
Nair D, Carrigan TP, Curtin RJ, Popovic ZB, Kuzmiak S, Schoenhagen P, et al. Association of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with proximal coronary atherosclerosis detected by multislice computed tomography. Prev Cardiol 2009;12:19 26.
Chen QJ, Lai HM, Chen BD, Li XM, Zhai H, He CH, et al. Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C ratio cutoffs for categorization of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang, China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13:235.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.