COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ETIOPATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND EMERGING THERAPIES OF BREAST CANCER
Keywords:Breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitors, Gene therapy, Mammography, PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, Nanotechnology, PARP inhibitors
Breast cancer (BC) appears to the most predominant form of cancer for women and the second largest factor in malignancy-associated mortality in women globally. The major predicts indicators for BC comprise lower menarche, late pregnancy, later menopause, obesity, alcohol intake, immobility, and another factor that influence the development of BC. Even though, it’s rising prevalence, BC death has decreased due to screening, early diagnosis, and access to adjuvant therapies for their treatment. Chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy are all treatments for BC, but due to adverse side effects and several drug resistances, they are becoming largely unsuccessful. BC is a complex disorder for several different forms and classification has depended on the cell morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation focused on the deregulation gene expression of various molecular biomarkers, that is, BRCA1, BRCA2, mTOR, PI3K, RB, MDM2, TQK53, and HER2, microRNA is responsible for BC occurrences. Several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies are underneath assessment and many other types of research, clinical studies are promising better effectiveness against cancerous cell proliferation and related pathways involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Hence, in the present review, we summarized and compiled the complete information of BC about its molecular pathogenesis, biomarkers, staging system, emerging therapies, and current advancement of BC.
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