• ARUN KUMAR Department of Pharmacology, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar - 144 020, Punjab, India.



Breast cancer, CDK4/6 inhibitors, Gene therapy, Mammography, PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, Nanotechnology, PARP inhibitors


Breast cancer (BC) appears to the most predominant form of cancer for women and the second largest factor in malignancy-associated mortality in women globally. The major predicts indicators for BC comprise lower menarche, late pregnancy, later menopause, obesity, alcohol intake, immobility, and another factor that influence the development of BC. Even though, it’s rising prevalence, BC death has decreased due to screening, early diagnosis, and access to adjuvant therapies for their treatment. Chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and radiation therapy are all treatments for BC, but due to adverse side effects and several drug resistances, they are becoming largely unsuccessful. BC is a complex disorder for several different forms and classification has depended on the cell morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation focused on the deregulation gene expression of various molecular biomarkers, that is, BRCA1, BRCA2, mTOR, PI3K, RB, MDM2, TQK53, and HER2, microRNA is responsible for BC occurrences. Several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies are underneath assessment and many other types of research, clinical studies are promising better effectiveness against cancerous cell proliferation and related pathways involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Hence, in the present review, we summarized and compiled the complete information of BC about its molecular pathogenesis, biomarkers, staging system, emerging therapies, and current advancement of BC.


Download data is not yet available.


El Hachem G, Gombos A, Awada A. Recent advances in understanding breast cancer and emerging therapies with a focus on luminal and triple-negative breast cancer. F1000Res 2019;8:F1000 Faculty Rev-591.

Abreu PH, Santos MS, Abreu MH, Andrade B, Silva DC. Predicting breast cancer recurrence using machine learning techniques: A systematic review. ACM Comput Surv 2016;49:1-40.

Feng Y, Spezia M, Huang S, Yuan C, Zeng Z, Zhang L, et al. Breast cancer development and progression: Risk factors, cancer stem cells, signaling pathways, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis. Genes Dis 2018;5:77-106.

Tinoco G, Warsch S, Glück S, Avancha K, Montero AJ. Treating breast cancer in the 21st century: emerging biological therapies. J Cancer 2013;4:117-32.

Callahan R, Hurvitz S. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2- positive breast cancer: Current management of early, advanced, and recurrent disease. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2011;23:37-43.

Rakha EA, Reis-Filho JS, Baehner F, Dabbs DJ, Decker T, Eusebi V, et al. Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade. Breast Cancer Res 2010;12:207.

Tong CW, Wu M, Cho WC, To KK. Recent advances in the treatment of breast cancer. Front Oncol 2018;8:227.

Mir O, Berveiller P, Ropert S, Goffinet F, Pons G, Treluyer JM, et al. Emerging therapeutic options for breast cancer chemotherapy during pregnancy. Ann Oncol 2008;19:607-13.

Key TJ, Schatzkin A, Willett WC, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC. Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer. Public Health Nutr 2004;7:187-200.

Cardoso F, Harbeck N, Barrios CH, Bergh J, Cortés J, El Saghir N, et al. Research needs in breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2017;28:208-17.

Al-Wajeeh AS, Salhimi SM, Al-Mansoub MA, Khalid IA, Harvey TM, Latiff A, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of different stages of breast cancer tissues using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer. PLoS One 2020;15:e0227404.

DeSantis CE, Ma J, Gaudet MM, Newman LA, Miller KD, Sauer AG, et al. Breast cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2019;69:438-51.

Allen T, Razavi GS, Giridhar MN. A review article on emerging role of hybrid molecules in treatment of breast cancer. Austin J Clin Immunol 2014;1:1022.

Baskar R, Lee KA, Yeo R, Yeoh KW. Cancer and radiation therapy: Current advances and future directions. Int J Med Sci 2012;9:193-9.

Tfayli A, Temraz S, Mrad RA, Shamseddine A. Breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries: An emerging and challenging epidemic. J Oncol 2010;2010:490631.

Howell A, Anderson AS, Clarke RB, Duffy SW, Evans DG, Garcia- Closas M, et al. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2014;16:446.

Murphy CG, Dickler MN. Endocrine resistance in hormone-responsive breast cancer: Mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Endocr Relat Cancer 2016;23:R337-52.

Wang J, Xu B. Targeted therapeutic options and future perspectives for HER2-positive breast cancer. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2019;4:34.

Neophytou C, Boutsikos P, Papageorgis P. Molecular mechanisms and emerging therapeutic targets of triple-negative breast cancer metastasis. Front Oncol 2018;8:31.

Feng WW, Kurokawa M. Lipid metabolic reprogramming as an emerging mechanism of resistance to kinase inhibitors in breast cancer. Cancer Drug Resist 2020;3:100.

Madden R, Kosari S, Peterson GM, Bagheri N, Thomas J. Lapatinib plus capecitabine in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: A systematic review. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018;56:72-80.

Qiu Y, Lu G, Wu Y. Upregulated CDKN2A Expression May be an Independent Protective Factor in Luminal-like Breast Cancer; 2020.

Freedman RA, Partridge AH. Emerging Data and Current Challenges for Young, Old, Obese, or Male Patients with Breast Cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2017;23:2647-54.

Dr. Ananya Mandal. Breast Cancer Pathophysiology; 2019. Available from: Pathophysiology.aspx.

Waks AG, Winer EP. Breast cancer treatment: A review. JAMA 2019;321:288-300.

Mary Ann Kosir. Breast Cancer; 2020. Available from: https://www.

Eric Wong, Sultan Chaudhry, Marisa Rossi. Breast Cancer; 2011.Available from:

Allison KH. Molecular pathology of breast cancer: What a pathologist needs to know. Am J Clin Pathol 2012;138:770-80.

Breast Cancer; 2021. Available from:

Harbeck N, Penault-Llorca F, Cortes J, Gnant M, Houssami N, Poortmans P, et al. Breast cancer. Nat Rev Dis Prim 2019;5:66.

Shah R, Rosso K, Nathanson SD. Pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. World J Clin Oncol 2014;5:283-98.

Mina LA, Lim S, Bahadur SW, Firoz AT. Immunotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer: Emerging new data. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 2019;11:321-8.

Ballinger T, Kremer J, Miller K. Triple-negative breast cancer-review of current and emerging therapeutic strategies. Oncol Hematol Rev 2016;12:89-94.

Blanco E, Ferrari M. Emerging nanotherapeutic strategies in breast cancer. Breast 2014;23:10-8.

Landaverde D, Verma S. Recent treatment advances in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: Aclinical approach. Clin Pract 2012;9:287-99.

Soysal SD, Tzankov A, Muenst SE. Role of the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer. Pathobiology 2015;82:142-52.

Nathan MR, Schmid P. The emerging world of breast cancer immunotherapy. Breast 2018;37:200-6.

American Cancer Society. Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2019-2020. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, Inc.; 2019.

Sana M, Malik HJ. Current and emerging breast cancer biomarkers. J Cancer Res Ther 2015;11:508-13.

European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO). 2018. Via Ginevra 4, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland. Available from: https://www.esmo. org/content/download/6593/114959/file/en-breast-cancer-guide-for-patients.pdf.

Dey B, et al. A review article on breast cancer. Int J Pharm Pharm Res 2018;11:284-98.

Sharma GN, Dave R, Sanadya J, Sharma P, Sharma KK. Various types and management of breast cancer: An overview. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010;1:109-26.

Deshpande TM, Pandey AK, Shyama SK. Review: Breast cancer and etiology. Trends Med 2017;17:1-7.

Bhargava HD. Breast Cancer; 2020. Available from: https://www.

El-Sharkawy A. In: Ahmed R, Al-Naggar A, editors. Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control Breast Cancer. Foster City, CA: Omics Group eBooks; 2014. p. 1-38.

Akram M, Iqbal M, Daniyal M, Khan AU. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer. Biol Res 2017;50:33.

O’Sullivan CC, Loprinzi CL, Haddad TC. Updates in the evaluation and management of breast cancer. Mayo Clin Proc 2018;93:794-807.

Breast Cancer: Stages. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Cancer Net; 2020. Available from:

Koh J, Kim MJ. Introduction of a new staging system of breast cancer for radiologists: An emphasis on the prognostic stage. Korean J Radiol 2019;20:69-82.

Abdulkareem IH. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer. Niger Med J 2013;54:371-5.

Sun YS, Zhao Z, Yang ZN, Xu F, Lu HJ, Zhu ZY, et al. Risk factors and preventions of breast cancer. Int J Biol Sci 2017;13:1387-97.

Meister MS, Morgan J. American Council on Science and Health; 2002. Available from: uploads/2012/04/20070814_risk_breast.pdf.

Rojas K, Stuckey A. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2016;59:651-72.

Majeed W, Aslam B, Javed I, Khaliq T, Muhammad F, Ali A, et al. Breast cancer: Major risk factors and recent developments in treatment. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15:3353-8.

Ikhuoria EB, Bach C. Introduction to breast carcinogenesis symptoms, risks factors, treatment, and management. Eur J Eng Res Sci 2018;3:58-66.

Harris JR, Lippman ME, Morrow M, Osborne CK. Diseases of the Breast 5th ed. Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP); 2014.

Myoclinic. Breast Cancer; 2020. Available from: https://www. syc-20352470.

Herndon J. A Comprehensive Guide to Breast Cancer; 2019. Available from:

Hu X, Huang W, Fan M. Emerging therapies for breast cancer. J Hematol Oncol 2017;10:98.

Cancer Genome Atlas Network. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors. Nature 2012;490:61-70.

Mohammed AA, Rashied H, Elsayed FM. CDK4/6 inhibitors in advanced breast cancer, what is beyond? Oncol Rev 2019;13:416.

Xu H, Yu S, Liu Q, Yuan X, Mani S, Pestell RG, et al. Recent advances of highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitors in breast cancer. J Hematol Oncol 2017;10:97.

Liu M, Liu H, Chen J. Mechanisms of the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib (PD 0332991) and its future application in cancer treatment (Review). Oncol Rep 2018;39:901-11.

Dange Y, Bhinge S, Salunkhe V. Optimization and validation of RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of palbociclib and letrozole. Toxicol Mech Methods 2018;28:187-94.

Rader J, Russell MR, Hart LS, Nakazawa MS, Belcastro LT, Martinez D, et al. Dual CDK4/CDK6 inhibition induces cell-cycle arrest and senescence in neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:6173-82.

Corona SP, Generali D. Abemaciclib: A CDK4/6 inhibitor for the treatment of HR+/HER2- advanced breast cancer. Drug Des Devel Ther 2018;12:321-30.

Lallena MJ, Boehnke K, Torres R, Hermoso A, Amat J, Calsina B, et al. In-vitro characterization of abemaciclib pharmacology in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 2015;75:3101.

Spector NL, Blackwell KL. Understanding the mechanisms behind trastuzumab therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5838-47.

Baselga J, Albanell J, Molina MA, Arribas J. Mechanism of action of trastuzumab and scientific update. Semin Oncol 2001;28:4-11.

von Minckwitz G, Procter M, de Azambuja E, Zardavas D, Benyunes M, Viale G, et al. Adjuvant pertuzumab and trastuzumab in early HER2- positive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2017;377:122-31.

Capelan M, Pugliano L, De Azambuja E, Bozovic I, Saini KS, Sotiriou C, et al. Pertuzumab: New hope for patients with HER2- positive breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2013;24:273-82.

Burris HA 3rd. Dual kinase inhibition in the treatment of breast cancer: Initial experience with the EGFR/ErbB-2 inhibitor lapatinib. Oncologist 2004;9:10-5.

Oakman C, Pestrin M, Zafarana E, Cantisani E, Di Leo A. Role of lapatinib in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Manag Res 2010;2:13-25.

Zhang D, Pal A, Bornmann WG, Yamasaki F, Esteva FJ, Hortobagyi GN, et al. Activity of lapatinib is independent of EGFR expression level in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 2008;7:1846-50.

Burstein HJ, Sun Y, Dirix LY, Jiang Z, Paridaens R, Tan AR, et al. Neratinib, an irreversible ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced ErbB2-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:1301-7.

Gourd E. Pyrotinib shows activity in metastatic breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 2017;18:e643.

Geuna E, Montemurro F, Aglietta M, Valabrega G. Potential of afatinib in the treatment of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press) 2012;4:131-7.

Paplomata E, O’Regan R. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in breast cancer: Targets, trials, and biomarkers. Ther Adv Med Oncol 2014;6:154-66.

Verret B, Cortes J, Bachelot T, Andre F, Arnedos M. Efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in advanced breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2019;30:x12-20.

Schmid P, Pinder SE, Wheatley D, Macaskill J, Zammit C, Hu J, et al. Phase II randomized preoperative window-of-opportunity study of the pi3k inhibitor pictilisib plus anastrozole compared with anastrozole alone in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:1987-94.

Wolff AC, Lazar AA, Bondarenko I, Garin AM, Brincat S, Chow L, et al. Randomized phase III placebo-controlled trial of letrozole plus oral temsirolimus as first-line endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:195-202.

Sabnis GJ, Goloubeva O, Chumsri S, Nguyen N, Sukumar S, Brodie AM. Functional activation of the estrogen receptor-α and aromatase by the HDAC inhibitor entinostat sensitizes ER-negative tumors to letrozole. Cancer Res 2011;71:1893-903.

Rižner TL. The important roles of steroid sulfatase and sulfotransferases in gynecological diseases. Front Pharmacol 2016;7:30.

Rasmussen LM, Zaveri NT, Stenvang J, Peters RH, Lykkesfeldt AE. A novel dual-target steroid sulfatase inhibitor and antiestrogen: SR 16157, a promising agent for the therapy of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007;106:191-203.

Rosenberg JE, Hoffman-Censits J, Powles T, van der Heijden MS, Balar AV, Necchi A, et al. Atezolizumab in patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma who have progressed following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy: A single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2016;387:1909-20.

Motzer RJ, Escudier B, McDermott DF, George S, Hammers HJ, Srinivas S, et al. Nivolumab versus everolimus in advanced renal-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2015;373:1803-13.

Robert C, Schachter J, Long GV, Arance A, Grob JJ, Mortier L, et al. Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N Engl J Med 2015;372: 2521–32.

Muro K, Chung HC, Shankaran V, Geva R, Catenacci D, Gupta S, et al. Pembrolizumab for patients with PD-L1-positive advanced gastric cancer (KEYNOTE-012): A multicentre, open-label, phase 1b trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17:717-26.

Brahmer J, Reckamp KL, Baas P, Crinò L, Eberhardt WE, Poddubskaya E, et al. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2015;373:123-35.

Jeffrey S, Hodi FS, Wolchok JD, Topalian SL, Schadendorf D, Larkin J, et al. Safety profile of nivolumab (NIVO) in patients (pts) with advanced melanoma (MEL): A pooled analysis. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:9018.

Kaufman HL, Russell J, Hamid O, Bhatia S, Terheyden P, D’Angelo SP, et al. Avelumab in patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma: A multicentre, single-group, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17:1374-85.

Boyerinas B, Jochems C, Fantini M, Heery CR, Gulley JL, Tsang KY, et al. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity of a novel anti-pd-l1 antibody avelumab (MSB0010718C) on human tumor cells. Cancer Immunol Res 2015;3:1148-57.

Collins JM, Gulley JL. Product review: Avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019;15:891-908.

Dawicki-McKenna JM, Langelier MF, DeNizio JE, Riccio AA, Cao CD, Karch KR, et al. PARP-1 activation requires local unfolding of an autoinhibitory domain. Mol Cell 2015;60:755-68.

Ossovskaya V, Lim C, Schools G, et al. The Chemosensitizing Properties Ofiniparib in Combination with DNA-Damaging Agents in the MDA-MB-468(-) Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Cell Line. Orlando, FL: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research; 2011.

Crown J, O’Shaughnessy J, Gullo G. Emerging targeted therapies in triple-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2012;23:vi56-65.

Osborne CK, Wakeling A, Nicholson RI. Fulvestrant: An oestrogen receptor antagonist with a novel mechanism of action. Br J Cancer 2004;90:S2-6.

Wardley AM. Fulvestrant: Areview of its development, pre-clinical and clinical data. Int J Clin Pract 2002;56:305-9.

Peddi PF, Hurvitz SA. Trastuzumab emtansine: The first targeted chemotherapy for treatment of breast cancer. Future Oncol 2013;9:319-26.

Boyraz B, Sendur MA, Aksoy S, Babacan T, Roach EC, Kizilarslanoglu MC, et al. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) for HER2-positive breast cancer. Curr Med Res Opin 2013;29:405-14.

Linderholm BK, Hellborg H, Johansson U, Elmberger G, Skoog L, Lehtiö J, et al. Significantly higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and shorter survival times for patients with primary operable triple-negative breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2009;20:1639-46.

Tomao F, Papa A, Zaccarelli E, Rossi L, Caruso D, Minozzi M, et al. Triple-negative breast cancer: New perspectives for targeted therapies. Onco Targets Ther 2015;8:177-93.

Yardley DA, Weaver R, Melisko ME, Saleh MN, Arena FP, Forero A, et al. EMERGE: A randomized phase II study of the antibody-drug conjugate glembatumumab vedotin in advanced glycoprotein NMB-expressing breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:1609-19.

Adams S, Schmid P, Rugo HS, Winer EP, Loirat D, Awada A, et al. Pembrolizumab monotherapy for previously treated metastatic triple-negative breast cancer: Cohort A of the phase II KEYNOTE-086 study. Ann Oncol 2019;30:397-404.

Desai N, Trieu V, Yao Z, Louie L, Ci S, Yang A, et al. Increased antitumor activity, intratumor paclitaxel concentrations, and endothelial cell transport of cremophor-free, albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007, compared with cremophor-based paclitaxel. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:1317-24.

Yoshida T, Ozawa Y, Kimura T, Sato Y, Kuznetsov G, Xu S, et al. Eribulin mesilate suppresses experimental metastasis of breast cancer cells by reversing phenotype from epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) states. Br J Cancer 2014;110:1497-505.

Funahashi Y, Okamoto K, Adachi Y, Semba T, Uesugi M, Ozawa Y, et al. Eribulin mesylate reduces tumor microenvironment abnormality by vascular remodeling in preclinical human breast cancer models. Cancer Sci 2014;105:1334-42.

Zhang P, Sun T, Zhang Q, Yuan Z, Jiang Z, Wang XJ, et al. Utidelone plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone for heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer refractory to anthracyclines and taxanes: A multicentre, open-label, superiority, phase 3, randomized controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2017;18:371-83.

Weledji EP, Tambe J. Breast cancer detection and screening. Med Clin Rev 2018;4:1-8.

Li H, Zhang S, Wang Q, Zhu R. Clinical value of mammography in diagnosis and identification of breast mass. Pak J Med Sci 2016;32:1020-5.

Nounou MI, ElAmrawy F, Ahmed N, Abdelraouf K, Goda S, Syed- Sha-Qhatta H. Breast cancer: Conventional diagnosis and treatment modalities and recent patents and technologies. Breast Cancer (Auckl) 2015;9:17-34.

McDonald ES, Clark AS, Tchou J, Zhang P, Freedman GM. Clinical diagnosis and management of breast cancer. J Nucl Med 2016;57: 9S-16.

Jourquin J, Reffey SB, Jernigan C, Jernigan C, Levy M, Zinser G, et al. Susan G. Komen big data for breast cancer initiative: How patient advocacy organizations can facilitate using big data to improve patient outcomes. JCO Precis Oncol 2019;3:PO.19.00184.

Smoot B, Wampler MA, Topp K. Breast cancer treatments and complications: Implications for rehabilitation. Rehabil Oncol 2009;27:16-26.

Dang CC, Amiruddin M, Lai SS, Low CF. An emerging role of pharmacist in pre-chemotherapy counselling among breast cancer patients. Indian J Pharm Sci 2017;79:294-302.

Alvarez RH, Valero V, Hortobagyi GN. Emerging targeted therapies for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28: 3366-79.

Osborne C, Wilson P, Tripathy D. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer: Potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Oncologist 2004;9:361-77.

Disis ML, Park KH. Immunomodulation of breast cancer via tumor antigen-specific Th1. Cancer Res Treat 2009;41:117-21.

Weber G, Chamorro CI, Granath F, Liljegren A, Zreika S, Saidak Z, et al. Human antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 promotes a metastatic phenotype in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2009;11:R6.

Kelemen L, Couch FJ, Ahmed S, Dunning AM, Pharoah PD, Easton DF, et al. Genetic variation in stromal proteins decorin and lumican with breast cancer: Investigations in two case-control studies. Breast Cancer Res 2008;10:R98.

Borgquist S, Jögi A, Pontén F, Rydén L, Brennan DJ, Jirström K. Prognostic impact of tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 2008;10:R79.

PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®); 2014.

Amjad A, Khan II, Kausar Z, Saeed F, Azhar L, Anwar P. Risk factors in breast cancer progression and current advances in therapeutic approaches to knockdown breast cancer. Clin Med Biochem 2018;4:1.

Lana Burgess. Tumor Size Relates to the Breast Cancer Stage; 2019. Available from:

Sign and Symptoms of Breast Cancer. MedLux International Hospital; 2020. Available from:

Potential treatment Options after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis; 2020. Available from:



How to Cite

KUMAR, A. “COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ETIOPATHOGENESIS, TREATMENT AND EMERGING THERAPIES OF BREAST CANCER”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 8, Aug. 2021, pp. 20-33, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2021.v14i8.41974.



Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)