EMPLOYMENT OF ATR-FTIR AND HPLC-UV METHOD FOR DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF ANDROGRAPHOLIDE
Keywords:Andrographolide, Bulk material, Determination, HPLC-UV, Identity, Purity
Objective: The purpose of this present study was to describe the employment of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) method in determining the identity and purity of bulk material containing andrographolide.
Methods: Attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out in transmittance mode to investigate the molecular vibration of the bulk material component and the similarity of functional groups between bulk material and standard andrographolide. Meanwhile, the liquid chromatographic analyses were performed on a reversed-phase C18 column and under UV detection at 224 nm to determine the andrographolide content of the bulk material.
Results: The obtained ATR-FTIR spectra indicated that functional group of the bulk material were in close similarity with those of standard andrographolide. The linearity of the evaluated method achieved over a concentration range of 1 to 60 Î¼g/ml with a high correlation coefficient (0.999). By using the studied HPLC-UV method, the andrographolide of bulk material was found to be 98.12% (retention time of 2.58 min).
Conclusion: The studied HPLC-UV method of andrographolide determination is accurate, precise, selective, and brief in terms of analysis time. The studied method, therefore, provides a rapid and reliable assessment for identifying and determining the purity of andrographolide bulk material.
Aromdee C. Andrographolide: progression in its modifications and applicationsâ€“a patent review (2012â€“2014). Expert Opin Ther Pat 2014;24:1129â€“38.
Pawar A, Rajalakshmi S, Mehta P, Shaikh K, Bothiraja C. Strategies for formulation development of andrographolide. RSC Adv 2016;6:69282â€“300.
Syukri Y, Martien R, Lukitaningsih E, Nugroho AE. Quantification of andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata nees obtained from a traditional market in Yogyakarta using validated HPLC. Indones J Chem 2016;16:190â€“7.
Kumar S, Dhanani T, Shah S. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 2014;52:1043â€“50.
Chao WW, Lin BF. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian). Chin Med 2010;5:17.
Lim JCW, Chan TK, Ng DS, Sagineedu SR, Stanslas J, Wong WF. Andrographolide and its analogues: versatile bioactive molecules for combating inflammation and cancer: andrographolide for inflammation and cancer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2012;39:300â€“10.
Chen HW, Huang CS, Li CC, Lin AH, Huang YJ, Wang TS, et al. Bioavailability of andrographolide and protection against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2014;280:1â€“9.
Warditiani NK, Susanti NMP, Arisanti CIS, Putri NPRD, Wirasuta IMAG. Antidyslipidemia and antioxidant activity of andrographolide compound from sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) herb. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:59-65.
Bothiraja C, Pawar AP, Shende VS, Joshi PP. Acute and subacute toxicity study of andrographolide bioactive in rodents: evidence for the medicinal use as alternative medicine. Comp Clin Pathol 2013;22:1123â€“8.
Sharifuddin Y, Parry EM, Parry JM. The genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assessments of andrographolide in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol 2012;50:1393â€“8.
Subramanian R, Zaini Asmawi M, Sadikun A. A bitter plant with a sweet future? A comprehensive review of an oriental medicinal plant: Andrographis paniculata. Phytochem Rev 2012;11:39â€“75.
Ye L, Wang T, Tang L, Liu W, Yang Z, Zhou J, et al. Poor oral bioavailability of a promising anticancer agent andro-grapholide is due to extensive metabolism and efflux by Pâ€glycoprotein. J Pharm Sci 2011;100:5007â€“17.
Zhang Y, Hu X, Liu X, Dandan Y, Di D, Yin T, et al. Dry state microcrystals stabilized by an HPMC film to improve the bioavailability of andrographolide. Int J Pharm 2015;493:214â€“23.
Sermkaew N, Ketjinda W, Boonme P, Phadoongsombut N, Wiwattanapatapee R. Liquid and solid self-micro emulsifying drug delivery systems for improving the oral bioavailability of andrographolide from a crude extract of Andrographis paniculata. Eur J Pharm Sci 2013;50:459â€“66.
Zhang J, Li Y, Gao W, Repka MA, Wang Y, Chen M. Andrographolide-loaded PLGA-PEG-PLGA micelles to improve its bioavailability and anticancer efficacy. Expert Opin Drug Delivery 2014;11:1367â€“80.
Ghosh P, Mondal S, Bera T. Preparation and characterization of andrographolide nanoparticles for visceral leishmaniasis chemotherapy: in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:102.
Yang T, Sheng HH, Feng NP, Wei H, Wang ZT, Wang CH. Preparation of andrographolide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and their in vitro and in vivo evaluations: characteristics, release, absorption, transports, pharmacokinetics, and antihyperlipidemic activity. J Pharm Sci 2013;102:4414â€“25.
Bothiraja C, Shinde MB, Rajalakshmi S, Pawar AP. Evaluation of molecular pharmaceutical and in vivo properties of spray-dried isolated andrographolide-PVP. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61:1465â€“72.
Guo L, Kang L, Liu X, Lin X, Di D, Wu Y, et al. A novel nanosuspension of andrographolide: Preparation, characterization and passive liver target evaluation in rats. Eur J Pharm Sci 2017;104:13â€“22.
Rajani M, Shrivastava N, Ravishankara MN. A rapid method for isolation of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata Nees (Kalmegh). Pharm Biol 2000;38:204â€“9.
Sharma M, Sharma RG. Identification, purification and quantification of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) nees by HPTLC at different stages of lifecycle of crop. J Curr Chem Pharm Sci 2013;3:23â€“32.
Dendisova M, Jenistova A, Parchanska-Kokaislova A, Matejka P, Prokopec V, Svecova M. The use of infrared spectroscopic techniques to characterize nanomaterials and nanostructures: a review. Anal Chim Acta 2018;1031:1-14.
Lee LC, Liong CY, Jemain AA. A contemporary review on data preprocessing (DP) practice strategy in the ATR-FTIR spectrum. Chemom Intell Lab Syst 2017;163:64â€“75.
Assi RA, Darwis Y, Abdulbaqi IM, Asif SM. Development and validation of a stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the detection and quantification of azithromycin in bulk, and self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDs) formulation. J Appl Pharm Sci 2017;7:20-9.
Trivedi A, Dixit N, Jhade DN. Modified quantification through high-performance liquid chromatography analysis for canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride in bulk and tablets using eco-friendly green solvents. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:97-101.
Pallavi K, Srinivasa BP, Kishore BG. Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC method for estimation of capecitabine in bulk and tablet dosage forms. Int J Appl Pharm 2016;8:24â€“9.
Kumar PR, Rajeevkumar R. A validated analytical HPLC method for the quantification of lincomycin hydrochloride in bulk and solid dosage form. Int J Appl Pharm 2017;9:42-4.
Shanmugasundaram P, Cholaraja B, Ragan G, Sankar Ask, Sumithra M. Analyitcal method development and validation of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of modafinil in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:177.
Shivali G, Praful L, Vijay G. A validated fouriert ransform infrared spectroscopy method for quantification of total lactones in Inula racemosa and Andrographis paniculata: quantification of lactones in herbal extracts by FT-IR. Phytochem Anal 2012;23:171â€“6.
Singh PK, Hasan T, Prasad O, Sinha L, Raj K, Misra N. FT-IR spectra and vibrational spectroscopy of andrographolide. J Spectrosc 2006;20:275â€“83.