ARGINASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF CAESALPINIA TORTUOSA ROXB
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the arginase inhibitory activity of Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb. stem bark extracts.
Methods: C. tortuosa Roxb. stem bark extracts were obtained through reflux extraction using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and their
inhibitory activity against arginase was measured using a microplate reader at 430 nm. Active extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis
and based on the qualitative phytochemical analysis, quantitative data regarding flavonoid and phenolic contents were obtained. The total flavonoid
content of active extracts was determined using AlCl3 colorimetric method, and the phenolic content was determined using Folinâ€“Ciocalteu method.
Results: Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. tortuosa Roxb. inhibited activity of arginase with IC50 values of 33.81 and 11.58 Î¼g/mL,
respectively, nor-NOHA acetate as standard drug inhibited arginase with IC50 values of I3.77 Î¼g/mL. Both active extracts contained saponins,
tannins, and flavonoids. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed a total flavonoid content of 7.41 mgQE/g and 5.05 mgQE/g and total
phenolic content of 27.55 mgGE/g and 17.16 mgGE/g, respectively. Methanol extracts had a higher inhibitory activity than ethyl acetate
extracts despite having flavonoid and phenolic content, thereby suggesting no correlation between arginase inhibitory activity and flavonoid
or phenolic content.
Conclusion: Ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of C. tortuosa Roxb. stem barks containing flavonoids, tannins, and saponins displayed arginase
inhibitory activity, and no correlation was observed between arginase inhibitory activity and flavonoid and phenolic content.
Species 2012: e.T19892394A20034138; 2012. Available from: http://www.
[Last accessed on 14 Jul 2018].
2. Farnsworth NR. Biological and phytochemical screening of plants.
J Pharm Sci 1966;55:225-76.
3. Zanin JL, de Carvalho BA, Martineli PS, dos Santos MH, Lago JH, Sartorelli P,
et al. The genus Caesalpinia L. (Caesalpiniaceae): Phytochemical and
pharmacological characteristics. Molecules 2012;17:7887-902.
4. Rina O, Ibrahim S, Dharma A, Afrizal, Chandra UW, Widodo YR.
Stabilities natural colorant of sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) for
food and beverages in various pH, temperature, and matrices of food.
Int J Chem Tech Res 2017;10:98-103.
5. Oboh G, Ademiluyi AO, Ademosun AO, Olasehinde TA, Oyeleye SI,
Boligon AA, et al. Phenolic extract from Moringa oleifera leaves
inhibits key enzymes linked to erectile dysfunction and oxidative stress
in rats â€™ penile tissues. Biochem Res Int 2015;2015:175950.
6. Glisic S, Sencanski M, Perovic V, Stevanovic S, GarcÃa-Sosa AT.
Arginase flavonoid anti-leishmanial in silico inhibitors flagged against
anti-targets. Molecules 2016;21:589.
7. Kim SW, Cuong TD, Hung TM, Ryoo S, Lee JH, Min BS, et al. Arginase
II inhibitory activity of flavonoid compounds from Scutellaria indica.
Arch Pharm Res 2013;36:922-6.
8. Shin W, Cuong TD, Lee JH, Min B, Jeon BH, Lim HK, et al. Arginase
inhibition by ethylacetate extract of Caesalpinia sappan lignum
contributes to activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Korean J
Physiol Pharmacol 2011;15:123-8.
9. da Silva ER, Maquiaveli Cdo C, MagalhÃ£es PP. The leishmanicidal
flavonols quercetin and quercitrin target Leishmania (Leishmania)
amazonensis arginase. Exp Parasitol 2012;130:183-8.
10. Schnorr O, Brossette T, Momma TY, Kleinbongard P, Keen CL,
Schroeter H, et al. Cocoa flavanols lower vascular arginase activity
in human endothelial cells in vitro and in erythrocytes in vivo. Arch
Biochem Biophys 2008;476:211-5.
11. Wyrepkowski CC, Costa DL, Sinhorin AP, Vilegas W, De Grandis RA,
Resende FA, et al. Characterization and quantification of the compounds
of the ethanolic extract from Caesalpinia ferrea stem bark and
evaluation of their mutagenic activity. Molecules 2014;19:16039â€‘57.
12. Ambarwati NS, Malik A, Deborah EA, Arpatism CH, Hanif M,
Elya B, et al. The antibacterial activity of fractions of ethyl acetate
Garcinia latissima Miq. stem bark extracts against Bacillus subtilis and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:69-72.
13. Steppan J, Nyhan D, Berkowitz DE. Development of novel arginase
inhibitors for therapy of endothelial dysfunction. Front Immunol
14. Sauriasari R, Azizah N, Basah K. Tyrosinase inhibition, 2,2-diphenyl-
1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and phytochemical
screening of fractions and ethanol extract from leaves and stem bark of
matoa (Pometia pinnata). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:85-9.
15. Wang L, Weller C. Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from
plants. Trends Food Sci Technol 2006;17:300-12.
16. Slimani A, Abdellah M, Hamadi L. Phytochemical screening,
contribution to the study of the antifungal effect of flavonoids from
different parts of Ziziphus lotus of South-West Algeria. Asian J Pharm
Clin Res 2017;10:13-6.
17. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar H. Optimization of reflux conditions for total
flavonoid and total phenolic extraction and enhanced antioxidant
capacity in pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) using response
surface methodology. Sci World J 2014;2014:1-10.
18. Tjernberg A, Markova N, Griffiths WJ, HallÃ©n D. DMSO-related
effects in protein characterization. J Biomol Screen 2006;11:131-7.