ELASTASE ACTIVITY INHIBITION BY THE MOST ACTIVE FRACTION OF STAR FRUIT (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.) LEAVES FROM THREE WEST JAVA REGIONS

  • SITI MARDHIYAH Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • BERNA ELYA Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • ARIKADIA NOVIANI Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia

Abstract

Objective: Premature skin aging is caused by increased elastase proteolytic activity, which causes elastin breakdown and disorganization in connective
tissue, reducing elasticity and flexibility, and wrinkling skin. Natural compounds in plants, especially polyphenols, inhibit elastase proteolytic
activity and prevent premature skin aging. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) leaves contain many polyphenols with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
hypoglycemic, and antimicrobial activities. However, no studies have shown that A. carambola leaves inhibit elastase proteolytic activity.
Methods: This study tested the inhibition of elastase proteolytic activity by the water fractions (WF), ethyl acetate fractions, and n-hexane fractions
of A. carambola leaves from the Depok, Sukabumi, and Subang regions of West Java. Each fraction was tested using a microplate reader, and the total
phenolic and flavonoid content was determined for the most active fraction.
Results: The WF of the A. carambola leaves from Depok was the most active fraction, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 160.36 μg/mL.
The total phenolic and flavonoid content in the WF was 115.68 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 9.15 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract,
respectively.
Conclusion: The WF of A. carambola leaves is a natural material that may inhibit elastase proteolytic activity and prevents premature skin aging.

Keywords: Premature skin aging, Elastase, Elastin, Averrhoa carambola L.’s leaves

References

1. Kohl E, Steinbauer J, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM. Skin ageing. J Eur
Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011;25:873-84.
2. Gonzaga ER. Role of UV light in photodamage, skin aging, and
skin cancer: Importance of photoprotection. Am J Clin Dermatol
2009;10 Suppl 1:19-24.
3. Wittenauer J, Mäckle S, Sußmann D, Schweiggert-Weisz U, Carle R.
Inhibitory effects of polyphenols from grape pomace extract on
collagenase and elastase activity. Fitoterapia 2015;101:179-87.
4. Scott DW, Miller WH. Structure and function of the skin. In: Scott DW,
Miller WH, editors. Equine Dermatology. Saint Louis: WB Saunders;
2011. p. 1-58.
5. Garg C, Khurana P, Garg M. Molecular mechanisms of skin photoaging
and plant inhibitors. Int J Green Pharm 2017;11:217-32.
6. Masaki H. Role of antioxidants in the skin: Anti-aging effects.
J Dermatol Sci 2010;58:85-90.
7. McCullough JL, Kelly KM. Prevention and treatment of skin aging.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1067:323-31.
8. Chen L, Teng H, Xie Z, Cao H, Cheang WS, Skalicka-Woniak K, et al.
Modifications of dietary flavonoids towards improved bioactivity:
An update on structure-activity relationship. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
2018;58:513-27.
9. Quideau S, Deffieux D, Douat-Casassus C, Pouységu L. Plant
polyphenols: Chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2011;50:586-621.
10. Moresco HH, Queiroz GS, Pizzolatti MG, Brighente IM. Chemical
constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of
Averrhoa carambola leaves. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2012;22:319-24.
11. Khanam Z, Sam KH, Hazerra N, Chua HC, Haq BU. Determination
of polyphenolic content, HPLC analyzes and DNA Cleavage activity
of Malaysian A. carambola L. fruit extract. J King Saud Univ Sci
2015;27:331-7.
12. Cabrini DA, Moresco HH, Imazu P, da Silva CD, Pietrovski EF,
Mendes DA, et al. Analysis of the potential topical anti-inflammatory
activity of Averrhoa carambola L. in mice. Evid Based Complement
Alternat Med 2011;2011:908059.
13. Ferreira EB, Fernandes LC, Galende SB, Cortez DA, Bazotte RB.
Hypoglycemic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Averrhoa
carambola L. (Oxalidaceae). Rev Bras Farmacogn 2008;18:339-43.
14. Rahayu M, Susiarti S, Sihontang VBL. A preliminary ethnobotanical
study on useful plants by local communities in Bodogol Lowland
Forest, Sukabumi, West Java. J Trop Biol Conserv 2012;9:115-25.
15. Desmiyati Y, Winarti W, Nursih AM. Antioxidant and antielastase
activity of Kaempferia rotunda and Curcuma zedoaria. Res J Chem
Environ 2018;22:95-8.
16. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Materia Medika
Indonesia. Vol. 4. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of
Indonesia; 1995.
17. Harborne J. Phytochemical Methods. New Delhi, India: Springer; 2008.
18. Singleton VL, Rossi JA Jr. Colorimetry of total phenolics with
phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic
1965;16:144-58.
19. Pratami D, Mun’im A, Sundowo A, Sahlan M. Phytochemical profile
and antioxidant activity of propolis ethanolic extract from Tetragonula
bee. Pharmacogn J 2017;10:128-35.
20. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Directorate General
of Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Development. Suplemen
III Farmakope Herbal Indonesia. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the
Republic of Indonesia; 2013.
21. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Common Standard
Parameters of Medicinal Plant Extracts. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of
the Republic of Indonesia; 2000.
22. Azwanida N. A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal
plants, principle, strength and limitation. Med Aromat Plants
2015;4:2167-412.
23. Hanani E. Analisis Fitokimia. Jakarta: EGC; 2014.
24. Nabilah N, Elya B, Djajadisastra J. Lipoxygenase inhibitory assay of
Averrhoa carambola L. leaves extract. Int J Chemtech Res 2017;10:342-47.
25. Thring TS, Hili P, Naughton DP. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and
anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants. BMC Complement
Altern Med 2009;9:27.
26. Liyanaarachchi G, Samarasekera J, Mahanama K, Hemalal K.
Tyrosinase, elastase, hyaluronidase, inhibitory and antioxidant activity
of Sri Lankan medicinal plants for novel cosmeceuticals. Ind Crops
Prod 2018;111:597-605.
27. Liu W, Yin D, Li N, Hou X, Wang D, Li D, et al. Influence of
environmental factors on the active substance production and
antioxidant activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and its quality assessment.
Sci Rep 2016;6:28591.
28. Kanashiro A, Souza JG, Kabeya LM, Azzolini AE, Lucisano-
Valim YM. Elastase release by stimulated neutrophils inhibited by
flavonoids: Importance of the catechol group. Z Naturforsch C J Biosci
2007;62:357-61.
29. Araho D, Miyakoshi M, Chou WH, Kambara T, Mizutani KT, Ikeda T.
A new flavone cglycoside from the leaves of Avehrroa carambola. Nat
Med 2005;59:113-16.
30. Dasgupt P, Chakraborty P, Bala NN. Averrhoa carambola: An update
review. Int J Pharm Res Rev 2013;2:58.
31. Brás NF, Gonçalves R, Mateus N, Fernandes PA, Ramos MJ, de Freitas V.
Inhibition of pancreatic elastase by polyphenolic compounds. J Agric
Food Chem 2010;58:10668-76.
Statistics
58 Views | 58 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
MARDHIYAH, S., ELYA, B., & NOVIANI, A. (2020). ELASTASE ACTIVITY INHIBITION BY THE MOST ACTIVE FRACTION OF STAR FRUIT (AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L.) LEAVES FROM THREE WEST JAVA REGIONS. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(1), 101-106. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF020
Section
Original Article(s)