EFFECT OF TRANSFERSOME ON THE STABILITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GLUTATHIONE IN ANTIAGING CREAMS
Objective: Glutathione is an important antioxidant compound that is added to various cosmetic preparations. This study compared the stability,
antioxidant activity, and penetration of glutathione creams formulated with and without transfersome, a commonly used carrier system.
Methods: The particle size of the transfersome was 55.65 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.398 and an entrapment efficiency of 66.22%. During
cycling and centrifugal testing, the creams (with and without transfersome) did not change color or demonstrate phase separation. Chemical stability
analyses of the products were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results: The remaining glutathione content in the transfersome cream was 83.44%, while that of the non-transfersome cream was 47.92%. In the
penetration test using Franz diffusion cells, the transfersome cream demonstrated a cumulative penetration of 4474.44 μg/cm2, with a cumulative
concentration percentage of 39.60% and a flux of 510.38 μg/cm−2h−1. In contrast, the non-transfersome cream demonstrated a cumulative penetration
amount of 2793.80 μg/cm2, with a cumulative concentration percentage of 24.73% and a flux of 340.12 μg/cm−2h−1. In addition, the IC50 value of the
transfersome cream preparation was 11.89 μg/mL, while that of the non-transfersome preparation was 15.57 μg/mL.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the use of transfersome increases the stability and penetration of glutathione in cream preparations.
et al. The glutathione system: A new drug target in neuroimmune
disorders. Mol Neurobiol 2014;50:1059-84.
2. Weschawalit S, Thongthip S, Phutrakool P, Asawanonda P. Glutathione
and its antiaging and antimelanogenic effects. Clin Cosmet Investig
3. Watanabe F, Hashizume E, Chan GP, Kamimura A. Skin-whitening
and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione:
A double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2014;7:267-74.
4. Sakai Y, Kayahashi S. Method for Improving Storage Stability of
Glutathione. Patent Application; 2010.
5. Hireche A, Kherouatou NC, Ribouh A, Abadi N, Shi MJ, Satta D.
Polymorphic deletions of glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and
bladder cancer risk in Algerian population. Asian J Pharm Clin Res
6. Bharadia PD, Modi CD. Transfersomes: New dominants for transdermal
drug delivery. Am J Pharm Tech Res 2012;2:2249-3387.
7. Salager JL. Surfactants types and uses. Los Andes: Laboratory of
formulation, interfaces rheology and processes. J Am Oil Chem Soc
8. El Zaafarany GM, Awad GA, Holayel SM, Mortada ND. Role of edge
activators and surface charge in developing ultradeformable vesicles
with enhanced skin delivery. Int J Pharm 2010;397:164-72.
9. Zafaruddin M, Kuchana V. Design and characterization of transfersomal
gel of repaglinide. Int Res J Pharm 2015;6:38-42.
10. Vinod KR, Kumar MS, Anbazhagan S, Sandhya S, Saikumar P,
Rohit RT, et al. Critical issues related to transfersomes-novel vesicular
system. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2012;11:67-82.
11. Koo SH, Lee JS, Kim GH, Lee HG. Preparation, characteristics, and
stability of glutathione-loaded nanoparticles. J Agric Food Chem
12. Harbin R, Stephens L. Extended Storage of Reduced Glutathione
Solution. Patent Application US; 2004.
13. Khan AR, Taneja P. Cationic peptide lactoferricin b inhibits glutathione
S-transferase P1 from human placenta and breast cancer cell line Mda-
Mb-231 preventing anticancer drug metabolism. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci
14. El Maghraby GM, Barry BW, Williams AC. Liposomes and skin: From
drug delivery to model membranes. Eur J Pharm Sci 2008;34:203-22.
15. Padamwar MN, Pokharkar VB. Development of vitamin loaded topical
liposomal formulation using factorial design approach: Drug deposition
and stability. Int J Pharm 2006;320:37-44.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.