A RECENT REVIEW ON NASAL MICROEMULSION FOR TREATMENT OF CNS DISORDER
Nasal route is found to be valuable for targeting drugs to CNS via a different mechanism. The advantages, disadvantages, various aspects of nasal anatomy and physiology, mechanism of drug transport from nose brain, drug selection criteria to cross BBB/Blood-CSF barrier are discussed briefly. Nowadays many drugs have better systemic bioavailability through nasal route as compared to oral administration. In addition, intranasal drug delivery enables dose reduction, rapid attainment of therapeutic blood levels, quicker onset of pharmacological activity, and fewer side effects. There are various approaches in delivering a therapeutic substance to the target site. One such approach is using microemulsion as a carrier for the drug. The main purpose of this study is the use of microemulsion technology in drug targeting to the brain along with mechanism of the nose to brain transport, formulation and formation of the microemulsion and its characterization.
2. Illum L. Nasal drug delivery-possibilities, problems and solutions. J Controlled Release 2003;87:187-98.
3. Aurora J. Development of nasal delivery systems: a review. Drug Delivery Technol 2002;2:1-8.
4. Striebel HW, Pommerening J, Rieger A. Intranasal fentanyl titration for postoperative pain management in an unselected population. Anaesthesia 1993;48:753-7.
5. Candace LG, Pollock GM. â€˜Nasal drug administration: potential for targeted central nervous system. Delivery J Pharm Sci 2005;94:1187â€“95.
6. Huang CH, Kimura R, Nassar RB, Hussain A. Mechanism of nasal absorption of drugs I: Physicochemical parameters influencing the rate of in situ nasal absorptions of drugs in rats. J Pharm Sci 1985;74:608-11.
7. Born J, Lange T, Kern W, McGregor GP, Bickel U, Fehm HL. Sniffing neuropeptides: a transnasal approach to the human brain. Nat Neurosci 2002;5:514-6.
8. Dowley AC, Homer JJ. The effect of inferior turbinate hypertrophy on nasal spray distribution to the middle meatus. Clin Otolaryngol 2001;26:488-90.
9. Fisher N, Brown K, Davis SS, Parr GD, Smith DA. The effect of molecular size on the nasal absorption of water soluble compounds in the albino rat. J Pharm Pharmacol 1985;37:38-41.
10. Wheatley MA, Dent J, Wheeldon EB, Smith PL. Nasal drug delivery: an in vitro characterization of transepithelial electrical properties and fluxes in the presence or absence of enhancers. J Controlled Release 1988;8:176.
11. Born J, Lange T, Kern W, McGregor GP, Bickel U, Fehm HL. Sniffing neuropeptides: a transnasal approach to the human brain. Nat Neurosci 2002;5:514-6.
12. Thorne RG, Frey II WH. Delivery of neurotrophic factors to the central nervous system: pharmacokinetic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinet 2001;40:907-46.
13. llum L. Bioadhesive formulations for nasal peptide delivery. In: Mathiowitz E, Chickering-III DE. Lehr C. Eds. Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems, NewYork, Marcel Dekker; 1999. p. 507-41.
14. Illum L. Nasal drug deliveryâ€“possibilities, problems and solutions. J Controlled Release 2003;87:187-98.
15. Born J, Lange T, Kern W, McGregor GP, Bickel U, Fehm HL. Sniffing neuropeptides: a transnasal approach to the human brain. Nat Neurosci 2002;5:514-6.
16. Kayes FB. Disperse systems in pharmaceutics: the science of dosage form design. International Student Edition. Ed: Aulton ME. Churchill Livingstone; 1999. p. 110.
17. Rieger MM. Emulsions in theory and practice of industrial pharmacy. Third Edition. Lachman L, Lieberman HA, Kanig JL. Varghese Publishing House, Bombay; 1987. p. 507â€“19.
18. Emsap WJ, Siepmann J, Paeratakul O. Disperse systems in modern pharmaceutics. Fourth Edition. Banker GS, Rhodes CT. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York; 2002. p. 260â€“61.
19. Eccleston GM. Emulsion and microemulsions encyclopaedia of pharmaceutical technology. Second Edition. Swarbrick J, Boylan JC. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York; 2002;2:1080â€“5.
20. Betageri G, Prabhu S. Semisolid preparations in the encyclopaedia of pharmaceutical technology. Second Edition. Swarbrick J, Boylan JC. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York; 2002. p. 2441â€“2.
21. Ghosh PK, Murthy RSR. Microemulsions: a potential drug delivery system, C. Am J Drug Delivery 2006;3:167-80.
22. Tenjarla S. Microemulsions: an overview and pharmaceutical applications. Crit Rev Therapeut Drug Carrier Syst 1999;16:461-21.
23. Corswant C, Thoren P, Engstrom S. Triglyceride-based microemulsion for intravenous administration of sparingly soluble substances. J Pharm Sci 1998;87:200.
24. Aboofazeli R, Patel N, Thomas M, Lawrence MJ. Investigations into the formation and characterization of phospholipid microemulsions. IV. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of systems containing water-lecithin-alcohol and oil; the influence of oil. Int J Pharm 1995;125:107-16.
25. Shinoda R, Kunieda H. Condition to produce so-called microemulsion: factors to increase the mutual solubility of oil and water by solubilizer. J Colloid Interface Sci 1973;42:381.
26. Siebenbrodt I, Keipert S. Poloxamer-system as a potential ophthalmic microemulsion. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 1993;39:25-30.
27. Attwood D. In: Colloidal drug delivery system. ed. Kreuter J. Marcel Dekker, New York; 1994. p. 31.
28. PK Murthy RS. Microemulsions: a potential drug delivery system. Curr Drug Delivery 2006;3:167-80.
29. Hargava HN, Narurkar A, Lieb LM. Using Microemulsions for drug delivery. Pharm Tech 1987;11:46-52.
30. Kreuter J. Microemulsions. In: Colloidal drug delivery systems. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1994. p. 31-71.
31. Lawrence MJ. Surfactant systems: microemulsions and vesicles as vehicles for drug delivery. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1994;3:257-69.
32. Lawrence MJ, Rees GD. Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2000;47:89-121.
33. Aboofazeli R, Lawrence CB, Wicks SR, Lawrence MJ. Investigations into the formation and characterization of phospholipid microemulsions III. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of systems containing water-lecithin-isopropyl myristate and either an alkanoic acid, amine, alkane diol, poly ethylene glycol alkyl ether or alcohol as co-surfactant. Int J Pharm 1994;111:63-72.
34. Stilbs P, Lindman B, Rapacki K. Effect of alcohol cosurfactant length on microemulsion structure. J Colloid Interface Sci 1983;95:583-5.
35. Shafiq-un-Nabi S, Shakeel F, Talegaonkar S. Formulation development and optimisation using nanoemulsion technique: a technical note. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2007;8:E1-E6.
36. Vyas TK, Babbar AK, Sharma RK, Singh S, Misra A. Intranasal mucoadhesive microemulsions of clonazepam: preliminary studies on brain targeting. J Pharm Sci 2005:95:570-80.
37. Kwatikar PS, Kulkarni NP, Yadav SP, Sakarkar DM. Formulation and evaluation of an anti-epileptic drug loaded microemulsion for the nose to brain delivery. asian J Pharm 2009:3:143-7.
38. Florence K, Agrawal HG, Misra A. Intranasal delivery of clobazam for the treatment of status epileptics. J Pharm Sci 2011;100:692-70.
39. Shende AJ, Patil RR, Devarajan PV. The microemulsion of lamotrigine for nasal delivery. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007:69:721-2.
40. Holvoet C, Heyden YV, Plaizier-Vercammen J. Inclusion complexation of lorazepam with different cyclodextrins suitable for parenteral use. Drug Dev Indian Pharm 2005: 31:567â€“75.
41. Date AA, Nagarsenker MS. Parenteral microemulsions: an overview. Int J Pharm 2008:355:19â€“30.
42. Yalin M, Oner F, Oner L, Hincal AA. Preparation and properties of a stable intravenous lorazepam emulsion. J Clin Pharm Ther 1997:22:39â€“44.
43. Amit AK, Vandana BP. Development and evaluation of lorazepam microemulsions for parenteral delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech 2008:9:966-71.
44. Pakalnis A, Kring D, Paolicchi J. Parenteral satisfaction with sumatriptan nasal spray in a childhood migraine. J Child Neurol 2003:18:772-5.
45. Villalon CM, Centurion D, Valdivia LF, de Vries P, Saxena PR. Migraine: pathophysiology, pharmacology, treatment and future trends. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2003:1:71-84.
46. Martindale PK. The complete drug reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press; 1999. p. 450-52.
47. Gladstone JP, Gawel M. Newer formulations of the triptans: advances in migraine treatment. Drugs 2003:63:2285-305.
48. Bigal ME, Bordini CA, Antoniazzi AL, Speciali JG. The triptan formulations: a critical evaluation. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2003:61:313-20.
49. Vyas TK, Babbar AK, Sharma RK, Singh S, Misra A. Preliminary brain-targeting studies on intranasal mucoadhesive micro-emulsions of sumatriptan. AAPS PharmSciTech 2006; 8:E1-E9.
50. Shelke RR, Devrajan PV. Aqua triggered in situ gelling microemulsion for nasal delivery. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:726-7.
51. Tushar K, Vyas AK, Babbar R, Sharma K, Misra A. Intranasal mucoadhesive microemulsions of zolmitriptan: preliminary studies on brain-targeting. J Drug Target 2005:13:317-24.
52. Tiwari NG, Bajaj AN. Formulation development of eucalyptuss oil microemulsion for intranasal delivery. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007;69:731-3.