PROTEIN QUALITY AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF FONIO (DIGITARIA EXILIS)/RICEBEAN (VIGNA UMBELLATA) BASED COMPLEMENTARY FOOD INCORPORATED WITH CARROT AND CRAYFISH.
Objective: This work evaluated the protein quality and sensory attributes of four complementary foods produced from fonio and ricebean incorporated
with carrot and crayfish.
Methods: The first sample fonibean normal (FNBN) was formulated by mixing 70 g fonio, 30 g sprouted ricebean, 30 g dried carrot, 30 g crayfish, 5 g
sugar, and 1 g salt, milled, sieved with muslin cloth, and the resultant flour was mixed with 5 ml of vegetable oil. A similar blend fonibean plus (FNBP)
contained an addition of 20 g powdered milk. A third blend fonibean minus (FNBM) contained fonio and sprouted ricebean only and no fortificants
while the fourth blend fonibean untreated (FNBU) contained unsprouted ricebean instead of sprouted ricebean. The following methods were used to
evaluate (a) protein â€“ Kjeldahl method by Chang (2003) (b) Protein quality â€“ bioassay as described by Onweluzo and Nwabugwu (2009) (c) Sensory
evaluation â€“ 9-point hedonic scale by Ihekoronye and Ngoddy (1985) (d) Statistical analysis â€“ Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17;
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate significant difference (p<0.05) while Duncan's new multiple range test was used to separate the
Results: The crude protein content of the formulated diets ranged from 13.80 to 21.70% which was higher (p<0.05) than (10-15%) the value
recommended for complementary food. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) of all the formulated diets except the unfortified diet (FNBM) (1.49) was
higher than (2.00) recommended for weaning food. The higher PER, BV, NPU, and digestibility values of samples FNBP, FNBU, and FNBN relative to
FNBM suggest better quality sources. Though the ricebean used in sample FNBU was not sprouted, the sample showed a better quality protein than
sample FNBM that contained sprouted ricebean. The fortified samples FNBN that contained sprouted ricebean and FNBU that contained unsprouted
ricebean had comparable (p>0.05) sensory scores in appearance (7.90 and 7.87), taste (7.24 and 7.21), and flavor (7.86 and 7.82). Samples FNBP,
FNBU, and FNBN had similar score (8.57) in consistency while samples FNBN and FNBP had significantly higher (p<0.05) score in overall acceptability
than other samples.
Conclusion: The study shows that the formulated diets contained very high-quality protein that can be used to alleviate all forms of protein
malnutrition, and the unfortified sample fonibean minus (FNBM) was least acceptable to the panelists.
Keywords: Complementary food, Fonio, Ricebean, Weanly rat, Ad libitum.
Asinobi C. Complementary food and complementary feeding for infant
and children of various age groups. Modalities and Techniques Institute
of Child Health. Ituku, Enugu: University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital;
Yeung DC. Iron and Micronutrients: Complementary Food Fortification.
London: H. J. Heinz Company, Corporate Nutrition; 2000. p. 1-5.
Graham GG, Glover DV, De Romana GL, Morales E, Maclean WJ Jr.
Nutritional value of normal, opaque and sugary maize hybrid for infants
and children 1. Digestibility and utilization. J Nutr 1980;110(5):1061-9.
Okaka JC. Tropical Plant Perishables: Handling, Storage and
Processing. Enugu, Nigeria: Silicon Valley Publishers; 1997. p. 36-48.
FIRRO. Soy-ogi: Nigerian Traditional Ogi Enriched with Proteins.
Vol. 7. Oshodi, Lagos: Federal Institute of Industries Research; 1973.
Chang SK. Protein Analysis in Food Analysis. 3
ed. New York: Kluver
Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2003. p. 79-86.
Onweluzo JC, Nwabugwu CC. Development and evaluation of weaning
food from pigeon pea and millet. Pak J Nutr 2009;8(6):725-30.
Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated Food Science and Technology
for the Tropics. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.; 1985. p. 33-4.
FAO/WHO. Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations Statement
No. 9. Amino Acid Fortification. New York: FAO; 1970.
Salunkhe DK, Jadhav SJ, Kadam SS, Chavan JK. Chemical,
biochemical, and biological significance of polyphenols in cereals and
legumes. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1982;17(3):277-305.