• PARMAR VIJYA Pioneer pharmacy degree college




Water is the source and basis of all life. Safe drinking water is essential to humans and other life forms even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some of its properties may vary slightly from those of the pure substance. Drinking water must be purified. A brief idea regarding purification methods includes Distillation, Deionization, Reverse osmosis, Activated carbon filtration; Ultraviolet oxidation, Electro dialysis etc are described. Water has some unchanged parameters which can be use to check purity. It includes PH, turbidity, salinity, hardness etc. various analytical methods are now available to determine such parameters and checking of purity.

Analytical methods include colourimetry, uv spectroscopy, titration, mass spectroscopy, titration and many more.



U S Pharmacopoeia expert committee (PW05) Pharmaceutical 05 USP29 - NF page 3056

Funderburk, S. L. (ed.). 1991. Habitat requirements for Chesapeake Bay living resources. Habitat Objectives Workgroup, Chesapeake Bay Program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Annapolis, MD.

American Chemical Society, Reagent Chemicals: American Chemical Society Specifications, 9th Edition, ACS, Washington, DC, 1999

Eidson, J. P. 1993. Water quality. In: Assessing change in the Edisto River basin, an ecological characterization. South Carolina Water Resources Commission Report 177.

Diaz, R. J. and R. Rosenberg. 1995. Marine benthic hypoxia: A review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 33:245-305.

Lorda, E. and S. B. Saila. 1986. A statistical technique for analysis of environmental data containing periodic variance components. Ecological Modeling 32:59-69.

Pelczar, Michael J., Chan and Krieg, Microbiology: Concept and Applications, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education., © 1999

American Society for Testing And Materials, Standard Specification for Reagent Water, D1193-99e1, © 2003

C. Clarine Anderson, A Comparison Of TOC Measurements In High- Purity Water Using Commercially Available Equipment, Microcontamination, April 1986

William V. Collentro, Water Purification Systems: Similarities Between The Pharmaceutical and Semiconductor Industries, Pharmaceutical Technology, September 1986

Walter Lorch, editor, Handbook of Water Purification, McGraw Hill Book Co., © 1981

APHA (1985): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. –American Public Health Association, American Water works Association, Water Pollution Control federation, Washington D .C. 16th edition.

D. Dean Spatz, Methods Of Water Purification, presented to the American Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technicians at the ASAIO-AANNT Joint Conference, Seattle, WA, April 1972, © 1971

Reinhard Hanselka, P.E., Contamination Sources In Deionized Water Vessels and High-Purity Valving, Microcontamination, June/July 1984

Water Quality Association, Technical Papers Presented At WQA Annual Convention, March 6-10 1985 Water Quality Association Publications a) Demineralization by Ion Exchange b) Reverse Osmosis And Ultrafiltration

Osmonics literature, Osmonics Inc., 5951 Clearwater Dr., Minnetonka, MN 55343

Pall’s Principles of Filtration, Pall, Europa House, Havant Street, Portsmouth PO1 3PD, England

U S Pharmacopoeia pharmacopeial forum: volume no 30(5) page no 1744

Fred Crowdus, System Economic Advantages of a Low Pressure Spiral RO System Using a Thin Composite Membrane, Ultrapure Water, July/August 1984

Paul N. Cheremisinoff and Fred Ellerbusch, Carbon Adsorption Handbook, Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., Ann Arbor, MI: 1980

Brunswick’s The Filterite Cartridge Filtration Guide, Brunswic Corporation

Anselme, C., and E.P. Jacobs. 1996. Ultrafiltration. (ed.) Mallevialle, J., P.E. Odendaal, M. R. Wiesner. Water Treatment Membrane Processes. American Water Works Association Research Foundation. Lyonnaise des Eaux. Water Research Commission of South Africa. McGraw-Hill.

Ultra Dynamics’ Technical Bulletin, Purification By Ultraviolet Radiation, Ultra Dynamics Corporation, 1631 Tenth Street, Santa Monica, CA 90404

Robert R. Reich and Helen D. Anderson, Laboratory Application of Ultraviolet Irradiation, MD & DI August 1985

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, Standard test methods for electrical conductivity and resistivity of water, No. D 1125-77: Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 138-146.

Rohm and Haas Technical Bulletins a) Amberlite MB-1 b) Amberlite MB-3 c) Nuclear Grade Amberlite Ion Exchange Resins

Hem, J.D., 1982, Conductance--a collective measure of dissolved ions, in Minear, R.A., and Keith, L.H., eds., Water analysis, v. 1, inorganic species, pt. 1: New York, Academic Press, p. 137-161.

HARDY, A.C. 1936. Handbook of Colorimetry. Technology Press, Boston, Mass.

Cerda`, V., J. M. Estela, R. Forteza, A. Cladera, E. Becerra, P. Altimira, and P. Sitjar. 1999. Flow techniques in water analysis. Talanta 50: 695–705

Lange's Handbook of Chemistry (13th Edition); Dean, J.A., Ed; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, 1985.

ASTM Annual Book of Standards, Part II, Volume 11.01, D3370-82, Standard Practice for Sampling Water,†American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1986.

Grob, R.L., and Barry, E.F. (2004). Modern Practice of Gas Chromatography (4th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, ISBN 0-471-22983-0

I. Molnar, H. Knauer, D. Wilk, ‘High-performance Liquid Chromatography of Ions’, J. Chromatogr., 201, 225–240 (1980).

Dionex Corporation. ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography System Operator’s Manual, Document No. 065031-03. Sunnyvale, CA, 2006.

Anliker, Keith, et. al. Laboratory Manual for Experimental Chemistry I, 2002. 46-52.

Silberberg, Martin. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 3rd ed. 2003.143-146.

Allen J. Bard and Larry R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications; Publisher, John Wiley & Sons 2nd Ed. 2001. Chapter 11, pgs 458-464.

Joseph Wang, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment, J. Chem. Ed. 60, December 1983, pgs. 1074-1075.

Bandey, H. L., Martin, S. J., Cernosek, R. W., and Hillman, A. R., Modeling the Responses of Thickness-Shear Mode Resonators Under Various Loading Conditions,†Anal. Chem., Vol. 71, No. 11, 1999, pp. 2205–2214.

Martin, S. J., Bandey, H. L., Cernosek, R. W., Hillman, A. R., and Brown, M. J., Equivalent Circuit Model for the Thickness-Shear Mode Resonator with a Viscoelastic Film Near Film Resonace,†Anal. Chem., Vol. 72, 2000, pp. 141–149.

Brown, Eugene, Skougstad, M.W., and Fishman, M.J., 1970, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 129-130.

Roberson, C.E., Feth, J.H., Seaber, P.R., and Anderson, Peter, 1963, Differences between field and laboratory determinations of pH, alkalinity, and specific conductance of natural water: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-C, p. C212-C215.

Barnes, Ivan, 1964, Field measurement of alkalinity and pH: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1535-H, 17 p.

McCluney, W.R., 1975, Radiometry of water turbidity measurements: Water Pollution Control Federation, v. 47, no. 2, p. 252-266.

King, Karl, 1991, Four-beam turbidimeter for low NTU waters, in Water, October 1991, Journal of the Australian Water and Wastewater Association.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1994, Technical notes on drinking water methods: EPA/600/R-94/173, October 1994, p. 28.

U.S. Salinity Laboratory Staff (1954): Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. – Handbook 60. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

Richard, L.A. (1954): Diagnosis and improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. – Agric. Handbook 60, (U.S. Dept. Agric., Washington, D.C., 160 pp.

Hem, J.D., 1985, Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254, 263 p.

Sheen R.T. and Kahler H. L. Effects of Ions on Mohr Method for Chloride Determination, Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed.; 1938; 10(11); 628-629.

JENKINS, R.L. & R.B. BAIRD. 1979. Determination of total chlorine residual in treated wastewaters by electrode. Anal. Letters 12:125.

American Society for Testing and Materials, 1981, Standard test methods for dissolved oxygen in water, No. D 888: Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 529-543.

Brown, Eugene, Skougstad, M.W., and Fishman, M.J., 1970, Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A1, p. 126-129.

White, A.F., Peterson, M.L., and Solbau, R.D., 1990, Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water: Ground Water, v. 28, no. 4, p. 584-590.

Weiss, R.F., 1970, The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater: Deep Sea Research, v. 17, p. 721-735.

Wood, W.W., 1981, Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground-water samples for selected unstable constituents: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 1, chap. D2, p. 22-24.

Köster W, Egli T, Ashbolt N, et al. (2003) Analytical methods for microbiological water quality testing. In: Assessing microbial safety of drinking water: improving approaches and methods (eds. Dufour A, Snozzi M, Koster W, et al.), p. 237-242. IWA Publishing.

Marc W. Mittleman, Biological Fouling of Purified Water Systems, Parts I and II, Microcontamination, October/November 1985

Pelczar, Michael J., Chan and Krieg, Microbiology: Concept and Applications, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education., © 1999

Gillberg, Lars, Hansen, Bengt and Karlsson Ingemar, 2003, About Water Treatment , pp 22. Kemira Kemwater, Helsingborg.



How to Cite

PARMAR VIJYA, THAKKAR KRUNALI, MINAL ROHIT, & D.B MESHRAM. (2013). A REVIEW ON VARIOUS TECHNIQUES AND PARAMETRS SIGNIFYING PURITY OF WATER. Innovare Journal of Food Sciences, 1(1), 8–14. Retrieved from https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijfs/article/view/206