PHYSIOCHEMICAL, PROXIMATE, AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF UNFERMENTED AND FERMENTED SOY-CARROT BEVERAGES SWEETENED WITH SUGAR, DATE, AND HONEY
Keywords:Fermentation, Soy-carrot beverage, Physicochemical properties, Proximate composition, Sensory properties
Objective: Physiochemical, proximate, and sensory properties of unfermented and fermented soy-carrot beverage sweetened with sugar, date, and honey were evaluated. Phytochemical content of soymilk, carrot juice, and their blend was also analyzed.
Methods: Three sets of soy-carrot beverages were produced by homogenizing soy milk and carrot juice in a ratio of 2:1 and sweetened to 12% Brix. Each set was sweetened with sugar, date, and honey, respectively. A fourth set was unsweetened and served as control. After pasteurization, one part was fermented with pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus at 42°C for 24 h.
Results: Fermentation significantly (p≤0.05) decreased pH (≥5.40–≤3.90), increased titratable acidity (≤0.55–≥0.90% lactic acid), and viscosity (≤0.65–≥0.87 Pa.S) of the soy-carrot beverages. Moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate, and energy content of unfermented beverages were 82.95– 93.95%, 2.15–2.87%, 0.42–1.21%, 0.10–0.20%, 3.21–12.55%, and 25.46–73.53 Kcal/g, respectively, while fermented beverages had 90.00–93.00%, 2.06–2.20%, 0.88–1.08%, 0.11–10.20%, 4.85–8.75%, and 36.76–52.20 Kcal/g, respectively. Total carotenoid, phenol, and DPPH radical scavenging activity varied, respectively, from 2.40–7.90, 14.81–26.59 mg tannic acid/ml, and 4.02–27.83% and were significantly (p≤0.05) highest in soy-carrot blend with carrot as major contributor. Degree of likeness of the sensory attributes for the sweetened and unfermented beverages was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than the fermented.
Conclusion: Date and honey (12% Brix) can be used as sucrose alternatives in producing acceptable nutritious beverage from soymilk and carrot juice.
Tahmassebi JF, BaniHani A. Impact of soft drinks to health and economy: A critical review. Eur Acad Paediatr Dent 2020;21:109-17.
Asgari-Taee F, Zerafati-Shoae N, Dehghani M, Sadeghi M, Baradaran H, Jazayeri S. Association of sugar sweetened beverages consumption with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr 2019;58:1759-69.
Suaad SA, Al-Humaidi AH. Microbial growth and chemical analysis of mineral contents in bottled fruit juices and drinks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Res J Microbiol 2008;3:319-25.
Babajide JM, Olaluwoye AA, Shittu TA, Adebisi MA. Physicochemical properties and phytochemical components of spiced cucumber-pineapple fruit drink. Niger Food J 2013;31:40-52.
Matthews-Njok EC. Adoption of soybean products in Owerri north local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Agrosearch 2005;7:17-22.
William S, Akiko A. Tofu and Soymilk Production: The Book of Tofu. Vol. 11. Lafayette, CA: New Age Food Study Centre; 2004. p. 213-15.
Hajirostamloo B. Comparison of nutritional and chemical parameters of soymilk and cow milk. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 2009;33:436-8.
Sharma KD, Karki S, Singh N, Attri TS. Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot-a review. J Food Sci Technol 2012;49:22-32.
Kiros E, Seifu E, Bultosa G, Solomon WK. Effect of carrot juice and stabilizer on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of yoghurt. LWT Food Sci Technol 2016;69:191-6.
Mridula D. Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of β-carotene rich defatted soy fortified biscuits. Afr J Food Sci 2011;5:305-12.
Sharma HK, Kaur J, Sarkar BC, Singh C, Singh B. Effect of pretreatment conditions on physicochemical parameters of carrot juice. Int J Food Sci Technol 2009;44:1-9.
Eggleston G. Sucrose and related oligosaccharides. In: Glycoscience. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
Abeshu MA, Geleta B. Medicinal uses of honey. Biol Med 2016;8:279.
Cianciosi D, Forbes-Hernández TY, Afrin S, Gasparrini M, Reboredo-Rodriguez P, Manna PP, et al. Phenolic compounds in honey and their associated health benefits: A review. Molecules 2018;23:2322.
Al-Farsi M, Lee CY. Nutritional and functional properties of dates: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2008;48:877-8.
Al-Shahib W, Marshall RJ. The fruit of the date palm: Its possible use as the best food for the future? Int J Food Sci Nutr 2003;54:247-59.
Al-Farsi MC, Alasalvar A, Morris M, Baron F, Shahidi F. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:7592-9.
Vyawahare N, Pujari R, Khsirsagar A, Ingawale D, Partil M, Kagathara V. Phoenix dactylifera: An update of its indegenous uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Internet J Pharm 2009;7:1.
Kohajdova Z, Karovicova J. Fermentation of cereals for specific purpose. J Food Nutr Res 2007;46:51-7.
Hati S, Vij S, Mandal S, Malik R, Kumari V, Khetra Y. α-galactosidase activity and oligosaccharides utilization by lactobacilli during fermentation of soy milk. J Food Process Preserv 2014;38:1065-70.
Profir A, Vizireanu C. Effect of the preservation processes on the storage stability of juice made from carrot, celery and beetroot. J Agroalimentary Process Technol 2013;19:99-104.
Banigo EB, Kiin-Kabari DB, Owuno F. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of soy/carrot drinks flavoured with beetroot. Afr J Food Sci Technol 2015;6:136-40.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of Chemistry. 20th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2012.
Iwe MO. Handbook of Sensory Methods and Analysis. Vol. 5. Uwani, Enugu: Rojoint Communication Services Ltd.; 2002. p. 27.
Biswas AK, Chatli MK. A simple UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for determination of β-carotene content in raw carrot, sweet potato and supplemented chicken meat nuggets. LWT Food Sci Technol 2011:44:1809-13.
Liyana-Pathiranan CM, Shahidi F. Antioxidant activity of commercial soft and hard wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by gastric pH conditions. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2433-40.
Wolfe K, Wu X, Liu RH. Antioxidant activity of apple peels, J Agric Food Chem 2003;1:609-14.
Nwoke FU, Umelo MC, Okorie JN, Ndako KJ, Maduforo AN. Nutrient and sensory quality of soymilk produced from different improved varieties of soybean. Pak J Nutr 2015;14:898-906.
Chua LS, Adnan NA. Biochemical and nutritional components of selected honey samples. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2014;13:169-79.
Aderinola TA, Abaire KM. Quality acceptability, nutritional composition and antioxidant properties of carrot-cucumber juice. Beverages 2019;5:1-9.
Mbaeyi-Nwaoha IF, Nwachukwu GO. Production and evaluation of yoghurt flavoured with beetroot. J Food Sci Eng 2012;2:583-92.
Madukwe EU, Eme PE, Okpara CE. Nutrient content and microbial quality of soymilk-carrot powder blend. Pak J Nutri 2013;12:158-61.
Parvin S, Easmin D, Sheikh A, Biswas M, Sharma SCD, Jahan MGS, et al. Nutritional analysis of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Perspective of Bangladesh. Am J Life Sci 2015;3:274-8.
Pranoto Y, Anggrahini S, Efendi Z. Effect of natural and Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation on in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of sorghum flours. Food Biosci 2013;2:46-52.
Wakili A, Abdullahi MB, Madara MS. Proximate composition of five commonly used horticultural products in Northern Nigeria. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2015;4:924-8.
Osman MA. Effect of traditional fermentation process on the nutrient and antinutrient contents of pearl millet during preparation of Lohoh. J Saudi Soc Agri Sci 2011;10:1-6.
Rodriguez-Amaya DB. A Guide to Carotenoid Analysis in Foods. Washington, DC: ILSI Press; 2001. p. 64.
Ma T, Tian C, Luo J, Zhou R, Sun X, Ma J. Influence of technical processing units on polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of carrot (Daucus carrot. L) juice. Food Chem 2013;141:1637-44.
Grune T, Lietz G, Palou A, Ross AC, Stahl W, Tang G, et al. Beta-carotene is an important Vitamin A source for humans. J Nutr 2010;140:2268S-85.
Hollman PC. Evidence for health benefits of plant phenols: Local or systematic effects? J Sci Food Agric 2001;81:842-52.
Aksoy L, Kargioglu M. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total antioxidant status and total oxidant status of endemic Thermopsis turcica. Saudi J Biol Sci 2013;20:235-9.