• OBINNA-ECHEM PC Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Nigeria.
  • AKUSU MO Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Nigeria.
  • OJIAKO AC Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Rivers State, Nigeria.




Maize, Germination, Pre-gelatinization, Cowpea, Carrot, Complementary food, Acidity, Proximate, Sensory properties


Objectives: Effect of addition of cowpea and carrot flour on the physicochemical, proximate, and sensory properties of germinated/pre-gelatinized maize complementary food was evaluated.

Methods: Germinated and pre-gelatinized maize grains, soaked and roasted cowpea, and cleaned carrot were processed individually into flour. Maize, cowpea, and carrot flour were blended at the ratios of 95:5:0, 90:5:5, 85:10:5, 80:15:5, 75:20:5, 70:25:5, and 60:30:5 represented by letters A – G. Maize flour (100%) served as control. Analysis was by standard analytical methods.

Results: pH and total titratable acidity ranged, respectively, from 6.09 to 6.33 and 0.77 to 1.13% lactic acid. Moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate content varied significantly (p≤0.05) from 8.23 to 11.48, 7.63 to 10.59, 2.72 to 6.39, 1.25 to 2.05, 2.86 to 6.63, and 66.43 to 73.59%, respectively. Energy differed significantly (p≤0.05) from 345.44 to 374.11 Kcal/100 g. Addition of cowpea and carrot flour increased the nutrient content except for carbohydrate and energy. Assessors’ degree of likeness of the gruel was from like moderately to dislike moderately with increase in cowpea addition for aroma (2.35–7.55), taste (2.70–8.10), mouth feel (3.25–7.55), thickness and consistence (2.80–7.45), and overall acceptability (2.57–7.75) except for color (3.50–7.60), with no significant (p≥0.05) difference in texture (3.05–4.50). Sample G with 30% cowpea addition had significantly (p≤0.05) the highest protein content but the least degree of likeness for all sensory attributes except color.

Conclusion: An addition of up to 10% cowpea with 5% of carrot flour for improved protein and acceptable sensory attributes is recommended.


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