ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND TOTAL POLYPHENOLICS CONTENT OF ESSENTIAL OIL, METHANOL EXTRACT AND METHANOL FRACTIONS FROM COMMELINA NUDIFLORA
Objective: In the present study, the essential oil, methanol extract, and methanol fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) obtained fromÂ CommelinaÂ nudifloraÂ were investigated for the free radical scavenging effects and phytochemical analysis.
Methods: The antioxidative effect of the essential oil, methanol extractsÂ andÂ methanol fractions were evaluated using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and ï¬‚avonoid contents were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium chloride reagents respectively.Â The phytochemical analyses of the essential oil, methanol extractsÂ andÂ methanol fractions were performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS).Â
Results: The antioxidant, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of butanol, ethyl acetateÂ andÂ chloroform fractions were higher followed by methanol extract, hexane fraction and essential oil. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloid, saponin, steroid, phytosterols, triterpenoidsÂ andÂ tannins etc.Â The identified bioactiveÂ constituents of essential oil, methanol extract and methanol fractions ofÂ C. nudiflora wereÂ indole, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 2-pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl,Â phenol, benzyl alcohol, eugenol,Â phenol, 2, 4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl),Â hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (palmitic acid ester),Â n-hexadecanoic acid (palmitic acid), 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, (linoleic acid)Â andÂ phytol.Â All identified bioactive compounds and their derivatives were generally reported with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties.
Conclusion: The obtained data suggest that the essential oil, methanol extract and methanol fractionsÂ ofÂ C. nudiflora possess remarkable antioxidant activities and vital phytochemicals. Thus the plant can be a utilized as a potential source of nutraceutical with antioxidant activity.
2. Shukla S, Mehta A, Mehta P, Vyas SP, Shukla S, Bajpai VK. Studies on anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:61-4.
3. Konate K, Hilou A, Mavoungou JF, Lepengue AN, Souza A, Barro N, et al. Antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from Sidaalba L. (Malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2012;11:5.
4. Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 2005;74:2157-84.
5. Gallinato MI, Moody K, Piggin CM. Uplamd rice weeds of south and southeast Asia International Rice Research Institute Los Banos; 1999. p. 33.
6. Hedrick UP. Sturtevant's edible plants of the world. Dover publications, ISBN 0-486-20459-6; 1972.
7. Duke JA, Ayensu ES. Medicinal plants of China. Reference Publications, Inc; 1985.
8. Leonard DB. Medicine at your feet: Healing plants of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Vol. I; 2006.
9. Alikbangon Philippines medicinal plants. Available from; http://www.stuartxchange.org/Alikbangon.html. [Last accessed on 30 Apr 2017]
10. Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Shah NA, Bokhari J, Rashid U, et al. Phytotoxic characterization of various fractions of Launaea nudicaulis. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:1403-6.
11. Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:4113â€“7.
12. Zou YP, Lu YH, Wei DZ. Antioxidant activity of a flavonoid-rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:5032-9.
13. Hatano T, Kagawa H, Yasuhara T, Okuda T. Two new flavonoids and other constituents in liquorice root: their relative astringency and radical scavenging effects. Chem Pharm Bull 1988;36:1090-7.
14. Antolovic M, Prenzler PD, Patsalides E, McDonald S, Robards K. Methods for testing antioxidant activity. Analyst 2002;127:183â€“98.
15. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 3rd ed. New York: Chapman and Hall Int; 1998.
16. Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 12th ed. Londen: Balliere Tindall; 1989.
17. Zheng W, Wang SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:5165-70.
18. Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 2000;63:1035-42.
19. Cordell GA. Introduction to alkaloids. Abiogenic approach. New York: Wiley; 1983.
20. Heslem E. Plant polyphenol: vegetal tannin relisted-chemistry and pharmacology of natural products. United Kingdem: Cambridge University Press; 1989. p. 169.
21. Gopinath S, Sakthidevi G, Muthukumara Swamy S, Mohan VR. GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents of Hypericum mysorense (Hypericaceae). J Curr Chem Pharm Sci 2013;3:6-15.
22. Sridevi G, Sembulingam P, Suresh S, Sembulingam K. Phytochemical analysis of Pergularia daemia for Its bioactive components through gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GCMS). IOSRPHR 2014;4:41-6.
23. Govindappa M, Prathap S, Vinay V, Channabasava R. Chemical composition of methanol extract of endophytic fungi, Alternaria sp. of Tebebuia argentea and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Int J BioPharma Res 2014;5:861-9.
24. Saravanan P, Chandramohan G, Mariajancyrani J, Shanmugasundaram P. GC-MS analysis of phytochemical constituents in ethanolic bark extract of Ficusreligiosa Linn. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:457-60.
25. Lee KG, Shibamoto T. Determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:4947-52.
26. Lee SJ, Umano K, Shibamoto T, Lee KG. Identiï¬cation of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem 2005;91:131â€“7.
27. Dasgupta A, Humphrey PE. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric identification and quantitation of benzyl alcohol in serum after derivatization with perfluorooctanoyl chloride: a new derivative. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 1998; 708:299â€“303.
28. Politeo O, Jukic M, Milos M. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of free volatile aglycones from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) compared with its essential oil. Food Chem 2006;101:379â€“85.
29. Apparecido N, Daniel SM, Sartoretto GSSM, Schimidt G, Caparroz Assef SM, Bersani-Amado CA, Cuman RK. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of eugenol essential oil in experimental animal models. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2009;19:212-7.
30. Ajayi GO, Olagunju JA, Ademuyiwa O, Martins OC. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and phytochemical screening of ethanolic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica, Linn. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:1756-61.
31. Rajaram K, Moushmi M, Velayutham Dass Prakash M, Kumpati P, Ganasaraswathi M, Suresh Kumar P. Bioactive studies between wild plant and callus culture of Tephrosia tinctoria Pers. Appl Biochem Biotech 2013;17:1-16.
32. Bativska D, Todorova IVAT, Tsvetkove IVAV, Najdenski HM. Antibacterial study of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monglycerides: Individual effects and synergistic relationships. Pol J Microbiol 2009;58:43-7.
33. Ouattara B, Simard RE, Holley RA, Piette GJP, Begin A. Antibacterial activity of selected fatty acids and essential oils against six meat spoilage organisms. Int J Food Microb 1997;37:155-62.
34. Sathish SS, Janakiraman N, Johnson M. Phytochemical analysis of Vitex altissima L. using UV-VIS, FTIR and GC-MS. Int J Sci Res 2012;4:56â€“62.
35. Kumar PP, Kumaravel S, Lalitha C. Screening of antioxidant activity, total phenolics and GC-MS study of Vitex negundo. Afr J Biochem Res 2010;4:191-5.
36. Bulent Kose Y, Iscan G, Demirci B, BaÅŸer KH, Celik S. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Centaurea aladagensis. Fitoterapia 2007;78:253â€“4.
37. Anand T, Gokulakrishnan K. Phytochemical analysis of Hybanthusenneaspermus using UV, FTIR and GC-MS. IOSRPHR 2012;2:520-4.
38. McGaw LJ, Jager AK, Van Staden J. Isolation of antibacterial fatty acids from Schotia brachypetala. Fitoterapia 2002;73:431-3.
39. Zheng CJ, Yoo JS, Lee TY, Cho HY, Kim YH, Kim WG. Fatty acid synthesis is a target for antibacterial activity of unsaturated fatty acids. FEBS Lett 2005;579:5157-62.