THE CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE EMERGING PANDEMIC: COVID-19
Keywords:SARS-CoV-2, Coronavirus disease 19 (covid-19), Transmission, Diagnosis, Therapeutics
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the extremely communicable viral infection coronavirus disease 19 (covid-19). Initially the virus was found at Wuhan, china which spread across the world exponentially and in a very short span. This outbreak has turned out to be a global health crisis and recently WHO regarded it as pandemic. The origin of the virus is predicted as either the natural selection in animal host prior to the transfer of the pathogen from animals to humans or the natural selection in humans and following transfer. Nevertheless, there is an extensive spread of virus by human to human transfer in the form of droplets. A few antiviral drugs are at the stage of clinical trials to eradicate the covid-19. In this review, a comprehensive approach is put forth to scrutinise the etiology, pathogenicity and transmission of SARS CoV-2. The review also deliberates broadly on the diagnosis and status of therapeutic treatment developed. It also focuses on the preventive and controlling measures from different sectors of the society. The review covers the details reported in 70 studies which were chosen after keyword searches carried out leading to over 884 resulting articles.
Mack A, Choffnes ER, Hamburg MA, Relman DA,. editors. Microbial evolution and co-adaptation: a tribute to the life and scientific legacies of Joshua Lederberg: workshop summary. Nat Acad Press; 2009.
Fischer R. What’s the difference between pandemic, Epidemic, and Outbreak. JSTOR Daily; 2020.
Singhal T. A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19). The Indian J Ped 2020;13:1-6.
Luan RS, Wang X, Sun X, Chen XS, Zhou T, Liu QH, et al. Epidemiology, treatment, and epidemic prevention and control of the Coronavirus disease 2019: A review. Sichuan da xuexuebao. Yi xue ban J of Sichuan Uni. Med Sci Ed 2020;51:131-8.
Mungroo MR, Khan NA, Siddiqui R. Novel coronavirus: current understanding of clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment options. Pathogen 2020;9:297.
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Update Report. No 101. Available from: https://www. who. int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200430-sitrep-101-covid19. pdf?sfvrsn=2ba4e093_2. [Last accessed on 29 Apr 2020].
Xu RH, He JF, Evans MR, Peng GW, Field HE, Yu DW, et al. Epidemiologic clues to SARS origin in China. Emerinfec Diseases 2004;10:1030-7.
Ramadan N, Shaib H. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): a review. Germs 2019;9:35-42.
Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020;323:1239-42.
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395:507-13.
Yang P, Wang X. Covid-19: a new challenge for human beings. Cell Mol Immunol 2020;31:1-3.
Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique R. Covid-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res 2020;24:91-8.
Chan JF, Lau SK, Woo PC. The emerging novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: the “knowns” and “unknowns”. J Formosan Med Assoc 2013;112:372-81.
Weiss SR, Leibowitz JL. Coronavirus pathogenesis. In Advances in virus research. Acad Press; 2011. p. 85-164.
Zumla A, Chan JF, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY. Coronaviruses-drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nature Rev Drug Discovery 2016;15:327-47.
WHO Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) technical guidance: laboratory testing for 2019-nCoV in humans. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/laboratory-guidance [Last accessed on 29 Apr 2020]
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) Situation Update Report. No 1. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200121-sitrep-1-2019-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=20a99c10_4 [Last accessed on 29 Apr 2020]
Indian Council of Medical Research and Ministry of Family Welfare. Available from: https://www.icmr.gov.in/ [Last accessed on 30 Apr 2020]
Zhang S, Diao M, Yu W, Pei L, Lin Z, Chen D. Estimation of the reproductive number of novel coronavirus (Covid-19) and the probable outbreak size on the diamond princess cruise ship: a data-driven analysis. Int J Infectious Diseases 2020;93:201-4.
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) Situation Update Report. No 100. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200429-sitrep-100-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=bbfbf3d1_6 [Last accessed on 29 Apr 2020]
MOHFW Govt of India. Available from: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/ [Last accessed on 01 May 2020]
World Health Organization. Coronavirus (Covid-19). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html [Last accessed on 30 Apr 2020]
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England J Med 2020;382:727-33.
Woo PC, Lau SK, Li KS, Poon RW, Wong BH, Tsoi HW, et al. Molecular diversity of coronaviruses in bats. Virology 2006;351:180–7.
Lau SK, Woo PC, Li KS, Tsang AK, Fan RY, Luk HK, et al. Discovery of a novel coronavirus, China rattus coronavirus HKU24, from norway rats supports the murine origin of betacoronavirus 1 and has implications for the ancestor of Betacoronavirus lineage. A J Virol 2015;89:3076–92.
Corman VM, Muth D, Niemeyer D, Drosten C. Hosts and sources of endemic human coronaviruses. InAdvances in virus research. Acad Press; 2018. p. 163-88.
Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, Holmes EC, Garry RF. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med 2020;26:450-2.
Liu Z, Xiao X, Wei X, Li J, Yang J, Tan H, et al. Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS‐CoV‐2. J Med Virol 2020;92:595-601.
Lewis D. Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree. Nature 2020;580:175.
Al-Tameeni KA, Kabakli R. Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): disease briefings. Asaian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:22-7.
World Health Organization. Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations: scientific brief. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations [Last accessed on 30 Apr 2020]
Yin Y, Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology 2018;23:130-7.
Van Boheemen S, de Graaf M, Lauber C, Bestebroer TM, Raj VS, Zaki AM, et al. Genomic characterization of a newly discovered coronavirus associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. Med Biol 2012;3:473-512.
Fung TS, Liu DX. Human coronavirus: host-pathogen interaction. Annual Rev Microl 2019;73:529-57.
Centers for Disease Control. Interim clinical guidance for management of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients [Last accessed on 30 Apr 2020]
Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA 2020;323:1061-9.
Xu XW, Wu XX, Jiang XG, Xu KJ, Ying LJ, Ma CL, et al. Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. Br Med J 2020;368:24.
Wei XS, Wang X, Niu YR, Ye LL, Peng WB, Wang ZH, et al. Clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infected pneumonia with diarrhea. New England J Med 2020;1708-20.
Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ, Hsueh PR. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and corona virus disease-2019 (Covid-19): the epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrol Agents 2020;55:105924.
Zheng YY, Ma YT, Zhang JY, Xie X. Covid-19 and the cardiovascular system. Nat Rev Cardiol 2020;17:259-60.
Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. Med Rxiv 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.06.20020974
Xydakis MS, Dehgani Mobaraki P, Holbrook EH, Geisthoff UW, Bauer C, Hautefort C, et al. Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with Covid-19. The Lancet Inf Dis 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30293-0
Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) cases on board the diamond princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Eurosurveillance 2020;25:2000180.
Corman VM, Landt O, Kaiser M, Molenkamp R, Meijer A, Chu DK, et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Eurosurveillance 2020;25:2000045.
Chen Y, Chan KH, Kang Y, Chen H, Luk HK, Poon RW, et al. A sensitive and specific antigen detection assay for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Emerging Micro Infec 2015;4:1-5.
Meyer B, Drosten C, Müller MA. Serological assays for emerging coronaviruses: challenges and pitfalls. Virus Res 2014;194:175-83.
Hamid S, Mir MY, Rohela GK. Noval coronavirus disease (Covid-19): a pandemic epidemiology, pathogenesis and potential therapeutics. New Microl New Infec 2020:35:100679.
Yi Y, Lagniton PN, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. Covid-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Inter J Bio Sci 2020;16:1753-66.
Taghrir MH, Akbarialiabad H, Marzaleh MA. Efficacy of mass quarantine as leverage of health system governance during Covid-19 outbreak: a mini policy review. Arch Iranian Med 2020;23:265-7.
Cook TM. Personal protective equipment during the Covid‐19 pandemic–a narrative review. Anaesthesia 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.15071
Pang J, Wang MX, Ang IY, Tan SH, Lewis RF, Chen JI, et al. Potential rapid diagnostics, vaccine and therapeutics for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): a systematic review. J Clin Med 2020;9:623.
Tu YF, Chien CS, Yarmishyn AA, Lin YY, Luo YH, Lin YT, et al. A review of SARS-CoV-2 and the ongoing clinical trials. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21:2657.
Barlow A, Landolf KM, Barlow B, Yeung SY, Heavner JJ, Claassen CW, et al. Review of emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Pharmacotherapy: J Human Pharmacol Drug Thera 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/phar.2398
McCreary EK, Pogue JM. Coronavirus disease 2019 treatment: a review of early and emerging options. In: Open Forum Infectious Diseases; 2020. p. 7.
Shetty R, Ghosh A, Honavar SG, Khamar P, Sethu S. Therapeutic opportunities to manage Covid-19/SARS-CoV-2 infection: present and future. Indian J Ophthalmol 2020;68:693-702.
Golchin A, Seyedjafari E, Ardeshirylajimi A. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for Covid-19: present or future. Stem Cell Rev Rep 2020;1-7. Doi:10.1007/s12015-020-09973-w
Bachanova V, Bishop MR, Dahi P, Dholaria B, Grupp SA, Hayes Lattin B, et al. CAR T cell therapy during the Covid-19 pandemic. Biol Blood Marrow Transplantation; 2020. p. 1-8.
Amanat F, Krammer F. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: status report. Immunity 2020;52:583-9.
Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA 2020;323:1843-4.
Wei Q, Ren Z. Disinfection measures for pneumonia foci infected by novel coronavirus in 2019. Chin J Disinfect 2020;37:59-62.
Butler MJ, Barrientos RM. The impact of nutrition on COVID-19 susceptibility and long-term consequences. Brain, Behaviour, and Immunity 2020;S0889-1591:30537-7.
Parmet WE, Sinha MS. Covid-19-the law and limits of quarantine. New England J Med 2020;15:382.
Nicola M, O’Neill N, Sohrabi C, Khan M, Agha M, Agha R. Evidence based management guideline for the Covid-19 pandemic-review article. Int J Oral Surg 2020;77:206-16.
Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020;395:912-20.
Smith KM, Machalaba CC, Seifman R, Feferholtz Y, Karesh WB. Infectious disease and economics: the case for considering multi-sectoral impacts. One Health 2019;7:100080.
Shashank MP, Chandana KVB, Prithvi SS, Sujay S, Tejaswini M, Lakshmi VR, et al. Covid-19 infection: the prospects of pharmacotherapy. Int J Heal Allie Sci 2020;9:S111-3.
Li H, Zheng S, Liu F, Liu W, Zhao R. Fighting against Covid-19: innovative strategies for clinical pharmacists. Res Soc Admin Pharm 2020;S1551-7411:30328-4.
Phua J, Weng L, Ling L, Egi M, Lim CM, Divatia JV, et al. Intensive care management of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19): challenges and recommendations. Lancet Resp Med 2020;8:506-17.
Rabaan AA, Al-Ahmed SH, Haque S, Sah R, Tiwari R, Malik YS, et al. Exploring the genetics, ecology of SARS-CoV-2 and climatic factors as possible control strategies against Covid-19. Le Infezioni Med 2020;28:174-84.