CONSTITUENT AND ANTIHYPERURICEMIC ACTIVITY OF STELECHOCARPUS BURAHOL LEAVES SUBFRACTIONS
Objective: The goal of this research was to evaluate antihyperuricemic activity of Stelechocarpus burahol leaves subfractions and isolate its chemicalÂ constituent of active subfraction.
Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction from S. burahol extract was subfractionated by vacuum liquid chromatography, and the active subfractions wereÂ further subfractionated by classic column chromatography using isocratic eluent, followed by isolated chemical constituent from active subfraction.Â Hyperuricemic rat model was induced by given potassium oxonate intraperitoneally. The inhibitory effect of subfractions on the xanthine oxidase (XO)
activity was determined using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry method.
Results: Subfractions E.3, E.4, and E.5 significantly (p<0.05) reduced the serum uric acid (UA) level 43%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. The E.3, E.4, andÂ E.5 have showed very weak XO inhibitory activity. Subfraction E.3.2 and E.4.3 significantly (p<0.05) reduced the serum UA level 29% and 38%, respectively,Â however still very weak effect on XO activity. Chemical constituent which was isolated from subfraction E.4.3 was kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside.
Conclusion: The subfractions of ethyl acetate fraction had antihyperuricemic activity in vivo but less effect on XO activity in vitro. Isolated compoundÂ in active antihyperuricemic of subfraction E.4.3 was kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside.
Keywords: Stelechocarpus burahol, Subfraction, Antihyperuricemic, Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside.
2. Pacher P, Nivorozhkin A, SzabÃ³ C. Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: Renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol. Pharmacol Rev 2006;58(1):87-114.
3. Dubchak N, Falasca GF. New and improved strategies for the treatment of gout. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2010;3:145-66.
4. Kumar A, Azmi W. Phytomedicine: A novel alternative for treatment of gout. Ann Phytomed 2014;3(1):80-8.
5. Batchu UR, Mandava K. Biochemical role of xanthine oxidoreductase and its natural inhibitors: An overview. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8(10):57-5.
6. Pande I. An update on gout. Indian J Rheumatol 2006;1(2):60-5.
7. Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM; American College of Physicians; American Physiological Society. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med 2005;143(7):499-516.
8. Hua J, Huang P, Zhu C, Yuan X, Yu CH. Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of modified simiao decoction in hyperuricemic mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;142(1):248-52.
9. Ling X, Bochu W. A review of phytotherapy of gout: Perspective of new pharmacological treatments. Pharmazie 2014;69(4):243-56.
10. Sutomo. Decrease of uric acid degree on broiller cock hyperuricaemia by ether petroleum fraction of kepel leaves (Stelechocarpus burahol Hook). Sains dan Terapan Kimia 2008;2(1):14-22.
11. Heusden EC. Revision of the Southeast Asian genus Stelechocarpus (Annonaceae). Blumea 1995;40:429-38.
12. Heyne K. Medicinal Plants from Indonesia. 2nd ed. Jakarta: Yayasan Sarana Wana Jaya; 1987. p. 765.13
13. Sunarni T, Leviana F, Fidrianny I, Iwo MI, Wirasutisna KR. Antihyperuricemic activity of four plants Annonaceae using hyperuricemic rats model and enzyme assay. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8(6):250-3.
14. Sunarni T, Leviana F, Fidrianny I, Iwo MI, Wirasutisna KR. Antihyperuricemic and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of fractions from ethanolic leaves extract of Stelechocarpus burahol. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9(6):1-4.
15. Sunarni T, Pramono S, Asmah R. Antioxidant free radical scavenging of flavonoid from the leaves of Stelechocarpus burahol (Bl.) Hook f. and Th. Indones J Pharm 2007;8(3):111-6.
16. Liu X, Chen R, Shang Y, Jiao B, Huang C. Lithospermic acid as a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor has anti-inflammatory and hypouricemic effects in rats. Chem Biol Interact 2008;176(2-3):137-42.
17. Umamaheswari M, Asokkumar K, Sivashanmugam AT, Remyaraju A, Subhadradevi V, Ravi TK. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the fractions of Erythrina stricta Roxb. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:646-8.
18. Abdullahi A, Hamzah RU, Jigam AA, Yahya A, Kabiru AY, Muhammad H, et al. Inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase by fractions Crateva adansonii. J Acute Dis 2012;1(2):126-9.
19. Cheng LC, Murugaiyah V, Chan KL. Flavonoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from Lippia nodiflora as promising antihyperuricemic agents and elucidation of their mechanism of action. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;176:485-93.
20. Dincer HE, Dincer AP, Levinson DJ. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia: To treat or not to treat. Cleve Clin J Med 2002;69(8):594, 597, 600-2.
21. Purwantiningsih, Hakim AR, Purwantini I. Antihyperuricemic activity of the kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol (Bl.) Hook. F. and Th.) leaves extract and xanthine oxidase inhibitory study. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;2(2):122-7.
22. Mabry TJ, Markham KR, Thomas MB. The Systematic Identification of Flavonoid. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1970. p. 1-343.
23. Nagao A, Seki M, Kobayashi H. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by flavonoids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999;63(10):1787-90.
24. Ahmad NS, Farman M, Najmi MH, Mian KB, Hasan A. Pharmacological basis for use of Pistacia integerrima leaves in hyperuricemia and gout. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;117(3):478-82.
25. Wang Y, Zhang G, Pan J, Gong D. Novel insights into the inhibitory mechanism of kaempferol on xanthine oxidase. J Agric Food Chem 2015;63(2):526-34.
26. Mo SF, Zhou F, Lv YZ, Hu QH, Zhang DM, Kong LD. Hypouricemic action of selected flavonoids in mice: Structure-activity relationships. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30(8):1551-6.
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.