PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY IN SOUTHERN INDIA
Keywords:Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic maculopathy, Chronic hyperglycemia
Â Objectives: In India, 69.1 million are diabetics as of 2015 compared to 18 million in 1995. Pan India prevalence study in diabetics carried out at 194 centers by All India Ophthalmological Society reported the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among diabetics as 21.8%. DR is of two types, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The severity of NPDR depends on microaneurysms, hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, and beading of veins and can progress to PDR. Inherit characteristic of PDR is neovascularization. The aim of this observational prevalence study is to study the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Type 2 diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic and to study the distribution of diabetic retinopathy with respect to age, sex, and duration of disease in a tertiary care hospital in southern India.
Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. Age above 20 years and patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and examined by the ophthalmologist were included and others excluded. Data documented were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 16.
Results: About 52.07% of patients with Type 2 DM for more than 10 years had diabetic retinopathy and 13.07 % of patients with Type 2 DM for more than 5 years have diabetic retinopathy.
Conclusion: India being the diabetic capital of the world and DR being the most common cause for visual impairment and blindness and it becomes empirical to assess the factors for its rising prevalence, which will significantly contribute in reducing the progression of DR.
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