• Sri Agung Fitri Kusuma Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
  • Ami Tjitraresmi Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
  • Gita Susanti Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia


 Objective: This study was performed to determine the antibacterial concentration of red Piper betle leaf ethanolic extract that is safe for Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bifidus as normal flora of the vagina.

Methods: The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of red P. betle leaf was performed using standard procedures. The extracts were tested for determining minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) using macrodilution method and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) done using the streak plate method. Evaluation of its antibacterial effect to vaginal normal flora growth inhibition was conducted using a plate count method with varying extract concentrations as follows: 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% w/v. L. acidophilus FNCC-0051 and L. bifidus FNCC-0210 were used as tested normal flora vaginal bacteria.

Results: The phytochemical analysis of the red P. betle leaf extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannin, steroids, saponin, and polyphenolic compounds. The MIC and MBC concentrations of testing extracts against both Lactobacillus ranged from 0.625% w/v to 1.25% w/v. The results showed that the extract at 0.2% w/v was the minimum concentration to maintain the presence of Lactobacillus approaching the amount of normal flora in the vaginal ecosystem that is 73-75%. At a concentration of 0.2% w/v, it was obtained L. acidophilus survival of 78.43% while L. bifidus amounted to 76.39%.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the red P. betle leaf ethanolic extract is a potential antibacterial and safe for normal flora of the vagina.

Keywords: Red Piper betle, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bifidus, Survival, Minimum inhibitory concentration.


1. Seragih DM. Pengalaman Ibu yang Menderita Keputihan. Fakultas Keperawatan USU: Sumatera Utara; 2009.p. 9-10.
2. Gene BB. Vaginal discharge: Clinical methods : The history, physical and laboratory examinations. 3rd ed. Butterworth publishers; 1990.
3. Eschenbach, David MD. Sekret Vagina. Dalam JH. Duenholter. Ginekologi Greenhill. Penerjemah: Chandra Sanusi. 10th ed. Jakarta: EGC; 1989.
4. Dorland N. Kamus Kedokteran Dorland. 26th ed. Jakarta: EGC; 2002. p. 984.
5. Tenney D. Acidophilus. Salt Lake City. UT: Woodland Publishing;1996.p. 20.
6. Jawetz EJ, Melnick, Adelberg E. Mikrobiologi Kedokteran (Medical Microbiology). Edisi 20. Translator : Edi Nugroho RF, Maulany. Jakarta: EGC; 1996. p. 192, 290.
7. Samuel O, Onoja, Gideon KM, Maxwell IE, Chidiebere C. Investigation of the laxative activity of Operculina turpethum extract in mice. Int J Pathol Clin Res 2015; 7 Suppl 4: 275-9.
8. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. 3th ed. New York: Chapman and Hall Int; 1998. p. 12.
9. Hassan P, Peh KK, Characterization and identification of Lactobacillus acidophilus using biologi rapid identification system. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 6 Suppl 1: 189-93.
10. Holt G, Krieg N, Sneath P, Staley J, Williams S. Bergey's manual of determinative of bacteriology. 9th ed. USA: Williams and Wilkins; 1994. p. 560-70.
11. Collins CH, Lyne PM, Grange JM. Collins and Lyne's microbiological methods. 8th ed. London: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2004.
12. Cain D, Hanks H, Weis M, Bottoms C, Lawson J. Microbiology Laboratory Manual. Collin County Community College District; 2013.
13. Nelson G, George S. Comparison of media for selection and enumeration of mouse fecal flora populations. J. Microbiol. Methods 1995; 22 Suppl 1: 293-300.
14. Anupma D, Hemlata S, Sharma RA, Archana SB. Estimation of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Thevetia peruviana (PERS.) K. schum. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015; 7 Suppl 2: 55-9.
15. Anita P, Sivasamy S, Madan KPD, Balan IN, Ethiraj S. In vitro antibacterial activity of Camelia sinensis extract against cariogenic microorganisms. J Basic Clin Pharm 2014; 6 Suppl 1: 35-9.
16. Djurdjevic DM, Solaja MM, Topalic Lj, Stijepic MJ, Glusac JR. The survival of Escherichia coli upon exposure to irradiation with non-coherent polychromatic polarized light. Vet Med 2011; 56 Suppl 10: 520–7.
17. Cheong WJ. Determination Of Catechin Compounds In Korea Green Tea Influsions Under Various Extraction Conditions By High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Department of chemistry ang institute of basic research, inha university, bull. Korea chem.sec 2005; 26 Suppl 1: 5.
18. Utami P. Buku Pintar Tanaman Obat. Jakarta: Agromedia Pustaka; 2008. p. 228.
19. Praveen KV, Ramya HPV, Sri LT. Probiotics: a novel approach in improving the values of human life. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 6 Suppl 1.
301 Views | 303 Downloads
How to Cite
Kusuma, S. A. F., A. Tjitraresmi, and G. Susanti. “ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF RED PIPER BETEL LEAF (PIPER CROCATUM RUIZ & PAV.) ETHANOL EXTRACTS TO LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS AND L. BIFIDUS GROWTH INHIBITION”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol. 10, no. 14, May 2017, pp. 65-68, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10s2.19490.
Original Article(s)