ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF RED PIPER BETEL LEAF (PIPER CROCATUM RUIZ & PAV.) ETHANOL EXTRACTS TO LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS AND L. BIFIDUS GROWTH INHIBITION
Â Objective: This study was performed to determine the antibacterial concentration of red Piper betle leaf ethanolic extract that is safe for Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bifidus as normal flora of the vagina.
Methods: The phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of red P. betle leaf was performed using standard procedures. The extracts were tested for determining minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) using macrodilution method and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) done using the streak plate method. Evaluation of its antibacterial effect to vaginal normal flora growth inhibition was conducted using a plate count method with varying extract concentrations as follows: 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% w/v. L. acidophilus FNCC-0051 and L. bifidus FNCC-0210 were used as tested normal flora vaginal bacteria.
Results: The phytochemical analysis of the red P. betle leaf extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannin, steroids, saponin, and polyphenolic compounds. The MIC and MBC concentrations of testing extracts against both Lactobacillus ranged from 0.625% w/v to 1.25% w/v. The results showed that the extract at 0.2% w/v was the minimum concentration to maintain the presence of Lactobacillus approaching the amount of normal flora in the vaginal ecosystem that is 73-75%. At a concentration of 0.2% w/v, it was obtained L. acidophilus survival of 78.43% while L. bifidus amounted to 76.39%.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the red P. betle leaf ethanolic extract is a potential antibacterial and safe for normal flora of the vagina.
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