• Diah Ramadhani Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.
  • Urip Harahap Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.
  • Azizah Nasution Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia.



Hypertension, Pharmaceutical care, Counseling, Cost-effectiveness analysis


 Objectives: To determine the effect of counseling on effectiveness and cost of the treatment for outpatient with primary hypertension (HTN) in Cut Meutia Hospital, Indonesia.

Methods: This 6-month prospective quasi-experimental study was undertaken to analyze the impact of counseling toward cost and effectiveness in the treatment in patients with primary HTN and evaluation of each month at Cut Meutia Hospital, Indonesia. The study sample consisted of 22 patients for each group. A cost analysis was conducted from the perspective of the health-care providers. The cost in the treatment of both groups was analyzed by calculating the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) and incremental CER (ICER).

Results: Most of the patients with HTN (54.55%) were males with ages ranging from 35 to 64 years old (77.27%). Patients who achieved a blood pressure <140/90 mmHg on HTN treatment: With counseling, 77.27%; without counseling, 18.18%. CER for HTN treatment with and without counseling were Rp 1,756,117,86 and Rp 6,704,247,91, respectively. The ICER was Rp 233,745.13.

Conclusion: Treatment of HTN with counseling was more cost-effective than without counseling.


Download data is not yet available.


Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005;365:217-23.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr., et al. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: The JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;289:2560-72.

Booth FW, Gordon SE, Carlson CJ, Hamilton MT. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: Primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:774-87.

Chobanian AV. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. The JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;2560-72.

Markovic BB. Treatment of hypertension by general practioners and hypetensive drugs expenditure in an urban environment. Coll Antropol 2009;33:71-6.

Bootman JL, Townsend RJ, McGhan WF. Principles of Pharmacoeconomics. 3rd ed. Cincinnati: Harvey White Books Company; 2005. p. 8-9.

Lawes CM, Hoorn SV, Rodgers A. Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease. Lancet 2008;371:1513-8.

Lawes CM, Hoorn SV, Law M, Elliott P. High blood pressure. In: Ezzati M, Lopez A, Rodgers A, Hoorn SV, Murray C, editors. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease due to Selected Major Risk Factors. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. p. 281-390.

Wu Y, Quan Z, Jianwei X, Meng L, Susan Z, Yushi H, et al. A cost effectiveness analysis between amlodipine and angiotensin II receptor blockers in stroke and myocardial infarction prevention among hypertension patients in china. Value Health Reg Issues 2013;2:75-80.

Drummond MF, O’Brien BJ, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.; 1997. p. 8-9.

Arnold RJ. Pharmacoeconomics: From Theory to Practice. Florida: CRC Press; 2010. p. 96.

Rustiani E, Retnosari A, Arsyanti L. Analysis of usage antihypertensive drugs in outpatient polyclinic PMI hospital Bogor: A comparison of cost effectiveness and patients’ quality of life. Indonesian J Pham Sci 2014;12:209-15.

Sitepu NB, Harahap U, Nasution SR. Evaluation of pharmaceutical care towards therapeutic outcomes and the primary hypertensive patients’ quality of life in a hospital. Indonesian J Pharm 2014;7:42-9.

Putri RA, Andrajati R, Bahtiar A. Analysis of the effectiveness of counseling and poster towards adherence and therapeutic outcome on hypertensive patients. J Manag Pharm Pract 2013;3:117-24.

Pratiwi D. Impact of Drug Counseling on Adherence of Hypertensive Patients in Special Polyclinic Dr. M. Djamil Padang Hospital. Thesis, Universitas Andalas; 2011.

Nasution A, Tanjung HR. Impacts of counseling on adherence to prescribed medications and blood pressure of hypertensive patients in four Indonesian primary health centers. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:114-7.

Nasution A, Sulaiman SS, Shafie AA. Cost-effectiveness of clinical pharmacy education on infection management among patients with chronic kidney disease in an Indonesian hospital. Value Health Reg Issues 2013;2:43-7.



How to Cite

Ramadhani, D., U. Harahap, and A. Nasution. “COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF COUNSELING IN THERAPY FOR OUTPATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, no. 13, Apr. 2018, pp. 18-21, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11s1.26555.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>