• RAVEINAL RAVEINAL Department of Internal Medicine, Allergic and Immunology Subdivision, Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital/Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia.
  • ERYATI DARWIN Department of Histology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia.
  • EVA DECROLI Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Metabolic Subdivision, Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital/Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia.
  • JAMSARI JAMSARI Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang-Indonesia.



IL-4, Gene promoter, Polymorphism, Graves disease


Objective: This study was conducted to prove the role of interleukin-4 gene promoter polymorphisms in Graves’ disease patients in M Djamil General Hospital Padang, Indonesia.

Methods: This study was conducted from August 2015 until December 2015 in the Internal Medicine Department in Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. This study involved 15 patients with Graves’ disease and 15 normal subjects. We examined that IL-4 promoter gene polymorphism was examined with PCR.

Results: Sequencing examination on IL-4 gene promoter resulted in 2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) motifs, which is rs2243250 and rs2070847. IL-4 SNP gene promoter polymorphisms rs2243250 and rs2070847 were found in both patient and control groups. TT is homozygous SNP polymorphisms. CT is heterozygous SNP polymorphisms. CC is wild type or no mutation SNP polymorphisms. Based on statistical tests, no difference in rs2243250 and rs2070847 SNP polymorphisms was found between patient and control group (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This study observed no difference in interleukin-4 gene promoter polymorphism between Graves’ disease patients and control group.


Download data is not yet available.


Decroli E, Elvira D, Aprilia A. The profile of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, T-regulator, and interleukin-4 of untreated Graves’ disease in Indonesia. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:57-9.

Davies T, Laurberg P, Bahn R. Hyperthyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky K, Larsen R, Kronenberg H, editros. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2011. p. 369-415.

Lillevang-Johansen M, Abrahamsen B, Jorgensen H, Brix T, Hegedus L. Excess mortality in treated and untreated hyperthyroidism is related to cumulative periods of low serum TSH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017;102:2301-9.

Liu J, Fu J, Xu Y, Wang G. Antithyroid drug therapy for Graves’ disease and implications for recurrence. Int J Endocrinol 2017;2017:3813540.

The Indonesian Society of Endocrinology Task Force on Thyroid Diseases. Indonesian clinical practice guidelines for hyperthyroidism. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc 2012;27:34.

Wang PW, Chen IY, Juo SH, His E, Liu RT, Hsieh CJ. Genotype and phenotype predictors of relapse of Graves’ disease after antithyroid drug withdrawal. Eur Thyroid J 2012;1:251-8.

Decroli E, Elvira D, Aprilia A. The effect of thionamide to TRH, TSH, IL-4, T-reg, and anti-TPO in Graves’ disease. Indones J Pharm 2019;30:122-7.

Decroli E, Manaf A, Syahbuddin S. Immunologic and hormonal effects of prophylthiouracil treatment using maintenance dose in Graves’ disease patients. Acta Med Indones 2014;46:314-9.

Elvira D, Darwin E. Role of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in pathogenesis of Graves’ disease in association with autoantibody thyroid and regulatory FoxP3 T-cells. Int J Med Health Sci 2017;11:69-72.

Elvira D. The role of T-regulatory expression in autoimmune thyroid disease and its association with thyroid antibody. J Autoimmune Disord 2016;2:19.

Tomer Y, Davies TF. Searching for the autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility genes: From gene mapping to gene function. Endocr Rev 2003;24:694-717.

Hunt PJ, Marshall SE, Weetman AP, Bell JI, Wass JA, Welsh KI. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in autoimmune thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1984-8.

Fairweather D, Frisancho-Kiss S, Rose NR. Sex differences in autoimmune disease from a pathological perspective. Am J Pathol 2008;173:600-9.

Ngo ST, Steyn FJ, McCombe PA. Gender differences in autoimmune disease. Front Neuroendocrinol 2014;35:347-69.

Khan D, Ahmed SA. The immune system is a natural target for estrogen action: Opposing effects of estrogen in two prototypical autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol 2016;6:635.

Shen X, Yan X, Xie B, Xu D, Wang K, Zhu J, et al. Genetic variants of interleukin-4 gene in autoimmune thyroid diseases: An updated meta-analysis. Autoimmunity 2015;48:129-35.

Heward JM, Nithiyananthan R, Allahabadia A, Gibson S, Franklyn A, Gough S. No association of an interleukin 4 gene promoter polymorphism with Graves’ disease in the United Kingdom. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:3861-3.

Mitchell RE, Hassan M, Burton BR, Britton G, Hill EV, Verhagen J, et al. IL-4 enhances IL-10 production in Th1 cells: Implications for Th1 and Th2 regulation. Sci Rep 2017;7:11315.

Zhu W, Liu N, Zhao Y, Jia H, Cui B, Ning G. Association analysis of polymorphisms in IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 with Graves’ disease. J Endocrinol Invest 2010;33751-5.

Nakkuntod J, Wongsurawat T, Charoenwongse P, Snabboon T, Sridarma V, Hirankarn N, et al. No association between an interleukin 4 gene promoter (-589) polymorphism and Graves’ disease in Thai patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87:123-8.

Sarkar D, Chakraborty A, Bhattacharya C, Singh LH, Chandra AK. Exploration of goitrogenic/antithyroidal potentiality of bamboo-shoots in relation to thiourea. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017;9:7-12.

Saptarini NM, Wibowo MS, Gusdinar T. Correlation study of age, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate among the Indonesian rheumatoid arthritis patients. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:274-7.

Santoso DI, Yunita S, Paramita N, Andraini T, Kartinah NT, Bayani GF, et al. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on IL-6 and TNF-α levels in overtrained rat heart. Int J Appl Pharm 2019;11:42-5.



How to Cite

RAVEINAL, R., E. DARWIN, E. DECROLI, and J. JAMSARI. “THE ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN-4 GENE PROMOTER POLYMORPHISMS IN GRAVES’ DISEASE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 13, no. 11, Nov. 2020, pp. 73-75, doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2020.v13i11.39151.



Original Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)