KOJIC ACID PRODUCTION USING MIXED CULTURES OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE AND ASPERGILLUS TAMARII
Keywords:Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus tamarii, Kojic acid, Optimization of fermentation
Objective: This study aimed to find the optimum kojic acid fermentation conditions using combination cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus
Methods: Screening of the best mixed cultures was performed using yeast extract medium with 5% (w/v) glucose. Fermentation conditions
were optimized by varying carbon and nitrogen sources, pH of medium, inoculum ratio, and aeration. Aeration was varied using 50 and 100 mL
of medium in 100 and 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, respectively. Kojic acid was analyzed using thin-layer chromatography-densitometry and UV-Vis
Results: Kojic acid produced from mixed cultures yielded 0.1396 ggâˆ’1, while sole cultures of A. oryzae and A. tamarii yielded 0.0329 ggâˆ’1 and
0.1001 ggâˆ’1, respectively. Of the nine fermentation mediums, the best carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose and yeast extract. From the three
variations of pH, pH 3.5 was the optimum pH value. From the three ratios of inoculum concentration, a ratio of 2:3 (A. oryzae:A. tamarii) was the best
ratio. Aeration was varied using 50 and 100 mL of medium in 100 and 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, respectively. Aeration of 100 mL medium in 250 mL
Erlenmeyer flask was selected as the best aeration that produced 6.559 g/L kojic acid.
Conclusion: The highest concentration of kojic acid was obtained by mixing cultures of A. oryzae and A. tamarii in a ratio of 2:3, using sucrose and
yeast extract as the substrates at pH 3.5 and semiaerobic condition.
Rosfarizan M, Shamzi M, Nurashikin S, Madihah MS, Arbakariya BA.
Kojic acid: Applications and development of fermentation process for
production. Biotech Mol Biol Rev 2010;5:24-37.
Bentley R. From miso, sake and shoyu to cosmetics: A century of
science for kojic acid. Nat Prod Rep 2006;23:1046.
Spencer A, Suhaili N, Bujang K, Hussaini A. Comparative Study of
Fig. 6: Kojic acid spectrum on UV-Vis spectrophotometer: (a) Kojic
acid from fermentation culture; (b) standard of kojic acid
Kojic Acid Production from Sago Hampas Using Different Strains of
Aspergillus flavus via Solid State Fermentation. 2nd ed. ASEAN Sago
Symposium. Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia: UNIMAS; 2012. p.
Suryadi H, Radji M, Dianingtyas J, Hidayah AP. Improvement of Kojic
Acid Production by a Mutant Strain of Aspergillus flavus, N40C10.
Bandung: Presented at International Conference on Mathematics and
Natural Sciences; 2006.
Velazhahan R. Bioprospecting of medicinal plants for detoxification of
aflatoxins. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis 2017;7:60.
Pildain M, Frisvad J, Vaamonde G, Cabral D, Varga J, Samson R.
Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean
peanuts. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008;58:725-35.
Hassan HM, Saad M, Hazzaa MM, E Ibrahim AI. Optimization study
for the production of kojic acid crystals by Aspergillus oryzae var.
effusus NRC 14 Isolate. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2014;3:133-42.
Sulistyaningrum L. Optimization of Kojic Acid Fermentation by Mutant
Strain of Aspergillus flavus NTGA7A4UVE10 [Optimasi Fermentasi
Asam Kojat Oleh Galur Mutan Aspergillus flavus NTGA7A4UVE10].
Thesis. Depok: Universitas Indonesia; 2008.
Sharma V, Garg M, Talukdar D, Thakur P, Henkel M, Sharma D, et al.
Preservation of microbial spoilage of food by biosurfactant-based
coating. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:98-101.
Balaraman M, Ghatnur S, Parvatam G. Culture conditions for
production of biomass, adenosine, and cordycepin from Cordyceps
sinensis CS1197: Optimization by desirability function method.
Pharmacog Mag 2015;11:448-56.
Xu C, Hu W, Liu S, Zhang Y, Xun D. Mycelial fermentation
characteristics and antiproliferative activity of Phellinus vaninii ljup.
Pharmacog Mag 2014;10:430-4.
Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebersss PA, Smith F. Colorimetric
method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem
Suzanne NS. Introduction to the Chemical Analysis of Food. London:
Jones and Bartlett Publisher; 1994. p. 137-64.
Aravindan R, Viruthagiri T, Seenivasan A, Subhagar S. Microbial
production and biomedical applications of lovastatin. Indian J Pharm
Wan H, Chen C, Giridhar R, Chang T, Wu W. Repeated-batch
production of kojic acid in a cell-retention fermenter using Aspergillus
oryzae M3B9. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2005;32:227-33.
Piantavini MS, Goncalves AG, Trindade AC, Merce AL, Potarolo R.
Development and validation of a UV spectrophotometric method for
kojic acid quantification based on its aluminum complexes. Asian J
Pharm Clin Res 2013;1:70-3.
Mukul S, Surabhi K, Atul N. Cosmeceuticals for the skin: An overview.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:1-6.
Kitada M, Ueyama H, Fukimbara T. Studies on kojic acid fermentation
(i) cultural condition in submerged culture. J Ferment Technol
Subrahmanyam V, Rao J, Kamath P, Raj P. Optimization of cultural
conditions for protease production by a fungal Species. Indian J Pharm