SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF COPPER PROTEINATE AND MANGANESE PROTEINATE FROM REACTION OF COPPER SULFATE AND MANGANESE SULFATE WITH PROTEIN EXTRACTED FROM FISH WASTE
Objective: Copper and manganese are essential minerals needed for various biological processes in small amounts. However, essential minerals
are poorly absorbed in the form of salts or free form, leading to their low bioavailability. Forming complexes of essential minerals with protein can
increase their bioavailability. Metal proteinate complexes are non-polar, thereby reducing their excretion from the body. Fish waste is quite abundant
in Indonesia, and therefore, we used fish waste to synthesize metal-proteinate complexes.
Methods: Protein was extracted from fish waste using pancreatin. The extracted protein was mixed with copper or manganese in various ratios. The
metal content in the complexes was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry; ion exchange chromatography was used for separating the
complexes from free unbound metals.
Results: The optimum condition which yielded the highest protein content was the ratio of pancreatin enzyme to fish waste powder of 2:100. The
optimum concentration of pancreatin was found to be 2% of the substrate. The yield of copper-proteinate complexes ranged from 97.87% to 98.55%,
whereas the yield of manganese proteinate ranged from 97.05% to 98.36%. The free metal content was only found in the manganese proteinate
complex in the 1.2:1 ratio, which was determined to be 0.0198 mg/g.
Conclusion: We demonstrated that copper and manganese can react with proteins extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis of fish waste.
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