• MAIDA FITRI Conservative Dentistry Residency Program, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.
  • KAMIZAR NAZAR Department Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.
  • RATNA MEIDYAWATI Department Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.
  • REZA AZMI Conservative Dentistry Residency Program, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.


Objective: Endodontic infections are treated with a root canal; one of the stages involves using an irrigation solution to eliminate microorganisms.
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is an irrigation solution used to eliminate Fusobacterium nucleatum, the common cause of primary endodontic
infections. However, this material is synthetic and can cause side effects and inflammation of the periapical tissues. Thus, an irrigation solution, such
as xanthorrhizol, which is made of natural ingredients, is required. However, xanthorrhizol’s antibacterial effect against F. nucleatum has never been
assessed. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the effect of xanthorrhizol, derived from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb., against F. nucleatum ATCC 25586
Methods: The methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay test and colony count test were performed to assess F. nucleatum eradication after exposure to
xanthorrhizol at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.75%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5%) and 2.5% NaOCl, which was used as positive control.
Results: Significant differences were observed in terms of cell viability after treatment with xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1.25% versus 0.5%,
0.75%, and 1%. The MTT assay test was used to evaluate cell viability in the biofilm and cell metabolism activities. Results showed no significant
differences in terms of efficacy between xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1.25% and 1.5%, which are considered effective against F. nucleatum, and
2.5% NaOCl (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The effect of xanthorrhizol at concentrations of 1.25% and 1.5% against F. nucleatum is similar to that of 2.5% NaOCl.

Keywords: Xanthorrhizol, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Sodium hypochlorite, Antibacterials, Biofilm


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