PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI EFFECT’S ON THE LEVELS OF INTERLEUKIN-4 IN PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS AFTER SCALING AND ROOT PLANING

  • RIKA TANIA NARULITA SINULINGGA Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • YUNIARTI SOEROSO Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • ROBERT LESSANG Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • DEWI FATMA SUNIARTI SASTRADIPURA Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Abstract

Objective: Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease principally caused by a complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and immune
responses. Probiotics stimulate the immune system of the oral mucosa by increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is
the anti-inflammatory cytokine that is most closely associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This study assessed the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri
(L. reuteri) containing probiotic lozenges toward clinical attachment loss (CAL) and IL-4 levels in periodontitis patients after scaling and root planing.
Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were collected from the gingival crevicular fluid of 16 periodontitis patients with pocket depth (PD) of
6 mm. The samples were divided into two groups. The non-probiotic group included periodontitis patients treated through scaling and root planing
(SRP) only (n=8), whereas the probiotic group included periodontitis patients treated through SRP and probiotics (n=8). The measurements of the
clinical parameters of PD and CAL were included as diagnostic criteria. Probiotic lozenges were given daily for 14 days. IL-4 levels were measured in
both groups using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.
Results: IL-4 levels decreased in the non-probiotic group and increased in the probiotic group, but there was no statistical difference between the
groups. CAL decreased in both groups and was significantly different.
Conclusion: SRP with the consumption of probiotic-containing L.reuteri in periodontitis patients resulted in decreased CAL and increased IL-4 levels
compared with SRP only.

Keywords: Probiotic, Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Periodontitis, Scaling and root planing

References

1. Saini R, Marawar PP, Shete S, Saini S. Periodontitis, a true infection. J
Glob Infect Dis 2009;1:149-50.
2. Chickanna B, Prabhuji ML, Nagarjuna MS. Host-bacterial interplay in
periodontal disease. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2015;7:44-50.
3. Gupta G. Probiotics and periodontal health. J Med Life 2011;4:387-94.
4. Soeroso Y, Akase T, Sunarto H, Kemal Y, Salim R, Octavia M. The
risk reduction of recurrent periodontal pathogens of local application
minocycline HCl 2% gel, used as an adjunct to scaling and root
planing for chronic periodontitis treatment. Ther Clin Risk Manag
2017;13:307-14.
5. Chatterjee A, Bhattacharya H, Kandwal A. Probiotics in periodontal
health and disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2015;15:23-8.
6. Martin-Cabezas R, Davideau JL, Tenenbaum H, Huck O. Clinical
efficacy of probiotics as an adjunctive therapy to non-surgical
periodontal treatment of chronic periodontitis: A systematic review and
meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol 2016;43:520-30.
7. Ramseier CA, Rasperini G, Batia S, Giannobile WV. Advanced regenerative
technologies for periodontal tissue repair. Periodontol 2000 2012;59:1-19.
8. Cetinkaya B, Guzeldemir E, Ogus E, Bulut S. Proinflammatory
and anti-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and
serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with chronic
periodontitis. J Periodontol 2013;84:84-93.
9. Koduganti RR, Sandeep N, Guduguntla S, Gorthi VS. Probiotics and
prebiotics in periodontal therapy. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:324-30.
10. Jia XW, Yuan YD, Yao ZX, Wu CJ, Chen X, Chen XH, et al. Association
between IL-4 and IL4R polymorphisms and periodontitis: A metaanalysis.
Dis Markers 2017;2017:8021279.
11. Rocha-Ramirez LM, Pérez-Solano RA, Castañón-Alonso SL,
Guerrero SS, Pacheco AR, Garibay MG, et al. Probiotic Lactobacillus
strains stimulate the inflammatory response and activate human
macrophages. J Immunol Res 2017;2017:4607491.
12. Twetman S, Derawi B, Keller M, Ekstrand K, Yucel-Lindberg T,
Stecksen-Blicks C. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing
probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators
in gingival crevicular fluid. Acta Odontol Scand 2009;67:19-24.
13. Caton JG, Armitage G, Berglundh T, Chapple ILC, Jepsen S,
Kornman KS, et al. A new classification scheme for periodontal and
peri-implant diseases and conditions introduction and key changes from
the 1999 classifiaction. J Clin Periodontol 2018;45:S20.
14. Van Koppen CJ, Hartmann RW. Advances in the treatment of chronic
wounds: A patent review. Expert Opin Ther Pat 2015;25:931-7.
15. Jain N, Joseph R, Balan S, Arun R, Banerjee M. Association of
interleukin-4 and interleukin-17F polymorphisms in periodontitis in
Dravidia ethnicity. Indian J Hum Genet 2013;19:58-64.
16. Michopoulou A, Rousselle P. How do epidermal matrix
metalloproteinases support re-epithelialization during skin healing? Eur
J Dermatol 2015;25 Suppl 1:33-42.
17. Levkovich T, Poutahidis T, Smilie C, Varian BJ, Ibrahim YZ,
Lakritz JR, et al. Probiotic bacteria induce a “glow of health”. PLoS
One 2013;8:e53867.
18. Shetty A, Bhandary R, Thomas B, Ramesh A, Hedge P. Probiotic significance
in periodontics a short review. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2017;2:57-60.
Statistics
51 Views | 56 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
SINULINGGA, R. T. N., SOEROSO, Y., LESSANG, R., & SASTRADIPURA, D. F. S. (2020). PROBIOTIC LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI EFFECT’S ON THE LEVELS OF INTERLEUKIN-4 IN PERIODONTITIS PATIENTS AFTER SCALING AND ROOT PLANING. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics, 12(2), 64-68. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s2.PP-20
Section
Original Article(s)