Effect of processing methods on the chemical composition and functional properties of pigeon pea seed

  • Peter Isah Akubor Federal University Wukari

Abstract

Flour samples were prepared from raw, toasted, fermented and germinated pigeon pea seedds. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition, antinutrient contents and functional properties. The processing treatments had varied effects on the properties analyzed.

Author Biography

Peter Isah Akubor, Federal University Wukari
Department of Food Scinece and Technology. Associate Professor.

References

1 Rachie K O, Wurster R. 2007. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as a
horticultural crop in East Africa. 1 SHS Acts hortictive 2007: 21: 1-5.

2 Rao VS , Vakie U K, Layam SS. Pigeon pea as important food source. CRC Crit Food
Sci Nutr.1986: 23: 103-141.

3 Amarteifio J O, Muntali DC, Karikar SK, Morake T K. The composition of pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) grow in Botswan. Plant foods hum. Nutr 2002: 57:75-177).

4 Igbedioh S O, Olugbemi KT, Akpapunam M A . Effect of processing methods on phytic acid
level and some constituents in bambara groundnut and pigeon pea. Food Chem1994: 50:147
151.

5 Osita BU. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient
contents of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2007: 28(1): 73-80.

6 Hamad AM, Fields MC. 1979. Reduction of protein quality and available lysine of
germinated and ungerminated cereals. J. Food Sci 1979: 44:456-459.

7 Maungi KM, Maing H PO. Amylase activity of some roots and sprouted cereals and beans.
Nutr. Bull 1995: 16:176-181.

8 Chikwndu NJ. the effects of germination on the chemical composition and quality of ground
bean (Kerslingisella geocarpa) flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2003: 24(1): 17-22.

9 Kulkarni SD . Roasted soybean in cookies. Influence on product quality. J Food Sci Technol
1997: 34:503-505.
10 Akubor PI, Chukwu JK.Proximate composition and selected functional properties of
fermented and unfermented African oil bean (pentaclethra Macrophylla) seeds flour. Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr 1999: 54:227-238.

11 Badifu, G. I. O. Effect of processing on proximate composition, antinutritional and
toxiccantants of kernels from cucarbitaceae species grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr
2000: 56:182-190.

12 King RD, Puwasterm P. Effect of germination on the proximate compositon and nutritional
quality of winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragolobus) seeds. J. Food Sci 1987: 51:52-60).

13 Akubor PI, Obiegbunam JE. Cereal chemical and functional properties of ungerminated and
germinated milled flour J. Food Sci. Technol 1999: 36(3): 241-243.

14 Ariahu CC, Ukpabi U, Mbajunwa KO.Production of African breadfruit(Treculia africana) and
soybean(Glycine max)seed based food formulation:Effect of germination and fermentation on
nutritional and organolptic quality. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 1999:54:193-206

15 Sosulski, F. W., M. O. Garratt and A. E. Sunkard. 1976. Functional properties of ten legume
flours. Can Inst. Food Sci. Technical J. 9: 666-69.

16 Naragana K, Narasinga Rao MS. Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged
bean (phophacarpus tetragonolobius) flour. J. Food Sci 1982:47: 1534-1538.

17 Okaka J C, Porter NN. Functional and storage properties of cow pea wheat flour blends in
bread making. J. Food Sci 1977: 42:828-831.

18 Onimawo,I.A.,Akubor, P.I., 2012. Food Chemistry (Itegrated Approach with
Biochemical Background).2nd edn. Joytal Printing Press, Agbowo, Ibadan, Nigeria 2012:
165-267

19 AOAC . Official methods of analysis (20th edn) Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Washington, D. C. 2010

20 SPSS. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).version SPSS 16.0. SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, IL, USA 2008.

21a Akubor PI .Evaluation of the chemical composition and sensory properties of
complementary
foods prepared from germinated cowpea and sweet potato flour blends. Nig J Nutri Sci
2016a:37(1):11-19


21b Akubor PI.Effect of fermentation on proximate composition, functional and sensory
propwerties of complementary foods prepared from cowpea and sweet potato flour blends.
Nig J Nutri Sci 2016b:37(2):117-124


22 Obizoba IC . Effect of sprouting on the nitrogenous constituents and mineral composition of
pigeon pea. (Cajanus cajan) seeds. Plants Food Hum. Nutr 1991: 41:21-25.

23 Osagie AU Antinutritional factors. In: nutritional quality of plant foods. Osagie AU, Eka OU.
(Eds.) Post Harvest Research Unit, Uni. Benin, Benin city 1998:221-244.

24 Mosha TC, Gaga HE. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and
chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant foods hum. Nutr 1999:
54: 271-283.

25 Akubor PI, Isolokwu PC, Ugane O , Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional
properties of African bread fruit kernel and wheat, flour blends. Food Res. Int 2000: 33:707-
712.

26 Yasumatsu, K. K. Sawada., S. K. Moritaka, M. MIkas, J. Toda, J. Wada, J. Ishill. 1972.
Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agric Bio. Chem. 36: 719-727.

1 Rachie K O, Wurster R. 2007. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as a
horticultural crop in East Africa. 1 SHS Acts hortictive 2007: 21: 1-5.

2 Rao VS , Vakie U K, Layam SS. Pigeon pea as important food source. CRC Crit Food
Sci Nutr.1986: 23: 103-141.

3 Amarteifio J O, Muntali DC, Karikar SK, Morake T K. The composition of pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) grow in Botswan. Plant foods hum. Nutr 2002: 57:75-177).

4 Igbedioh S O, Olugbemi KT, Akpapunam M A . Effect of processing methods on phytic acid
level and some constituents in bambara groundnut and pigeon pea. Food Chem1994: 50:147
151.

5 Osita BU. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient
contents of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2007: 28(1): 73-80.

6 Hamad AM, Fields MC. 1979. Reduction of protein quality and available lysine of
germinated and ungerminated cereals. J. Food Sci 1979: 44:456-459.

7 Maungi KM, Maing H PO. Amylase activity of some roots and sprouted cereals and beans.
Nutr. Bull 1995: 16:176-181.

8 Chikwndu NJ. the effects of germination on the chemical composition and quality of ground
bean (Kerslingisella geocarpa) flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2003: 24(1): 17-22.

9 Kulkarni SD . Roasted soybean in cookies. Influence on product quality. J Food Sci Technol
1997: 34:503-505.
10 Akubor PI, Chukwu JK.Proximate composition and selected functional properties of
fermented and unfermented African oil bean (pentaclethra Macrophylla) seeds flour. Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr 1999: 54:227-238.

11 Badifu, G. I. O. Effect of processing on proximate composition, antinutritional and
toxiccantants of kernels from cucarbitaceae species grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr
2000: 56:182-190.

12 King RD, Puwasterm P. Effect of germination on the proximate compositon and nutritional
quality of winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragolobus) seeds. J. Food Sci 1987: 51:52-60).

13 Akubor PI, Obiegbunam JE. Cereal chemical and functional properties of ungerminated and
germinated milled flour J. Food Sci. Technol 1999: 36(3): 241-243.

14 Ariahu CC, Ukpabi U, Mbajunwa KO.Production of African breadfruit(Treculia africana) and
soybean(Glycine max)seed based food formulation:Effect of germination and fermentation on
nutritional and organolptic quality. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 1999:54:193-206

15 Sosulski, F. W., M. O. Garratt and A. E. Sunkard. 1976. Functional properties of ten legume
flours. Can Inst. Food Sci. Technical J. 9: 666-69.

16 Naragana K, Narasinga Rao MS. Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged
bean (phophacarpus tetragonolobius) flour. J. Food Sci 1982:47: 1534-1538.

17 Okaka J C, Porter NN. Functional and storage properties of cow pea wheat flour blends in
bread making. J. Food Sci 1977: 42:828-831.

18 Onimawo,I.A.,Akubor, P.I., 2012. Food Chemistry (Itegrated Approach with
Biochemical Background).2nd edn. Joytal Printing Press, Agbowo, Ibadan, Nigeria 2012:
165-267

19 AOAC . Official methods of analysis (20th edn) Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Washington, D. C. 2010

20 SPSS. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).version SPSS 16.0. SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, IL, USA 2008.

21a Akubor PI .Evaluation of the chemical composition and sensory properties of
complementary
foods prepared from germinated cowpea and sweet potato flour blends. Nig J Nutri Sci
2016a:37(1):11-19


21b Akubor PI.Effect of fermentation on proximate composition, functional and sensory
propwerties of complementary foods prepared from cowpea and sweet potato flour blends.
Nig J Nutri Sci 2016b:37(2):117-124


22 Obizoba IC . Effect of sprouting on the nitrogenous constituents and mineral composition of
pigeon pea. (Cajanus cajan) seeds. Plants Food Hum. Nutr 1991: 41:21-25.

23 Osagie AU Antinutritional factors. In: nutritional quality of plant foods. Osagie AU, Eka OU.
(Eds.) Post Harvest Research Unit, Uni. Benin, Benin city 1998:221-244.

24 Mosha TC, Gaga HE. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and
chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant foods hum. Nutr 1999:
54: 271-283.

25 Akubor PI, Isolokwu PC, Ugane O , Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional
properties of African bread fruit kernel and wheat, flour blends. Food Res. Int 2000: 33:707-
712.

26 Yasumatsu, K. K. Sawada., S. K. Moritaka, M. MIkas, J. Toda, J. Wada, J. Ishill. 1972.
Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agric Bio. Chem. 36: 719-727.
1 Rachie K O, Wurster R. 2007. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as a
horticultural crop in East Africa. 1 SHS Acts hortictive 2007: 21: 1-5.

2 Rao VS , Vakie U K, Layam SS. Pigeon pea as important food source. CRC Crit Food
Sci Nutr.1986: 23: 103-141.

3 Amarteifio J O, Muntali DC, Karikar SK, Morake T K. The composition of pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) grow in Botswan. Plant foods hum. Nutr 2002: 57:75-177).

4 Igbedioh S O, Olugbemi KT, Akpapunam M A . Effect of processing methods on phytic acid
level and some constituents in bambara groundnut and pigeon pea. Food Chem1994: 50:147
151.

5 Osita BU. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient
contents of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2007: 28(1): 73-80.

6 Hamad AM, Fields MC. 1979. Reduction of protein quality and available lysine of
germinated and ungerminated cereals. J. Food Sci 1979: 44:456-459.

7 Maungi KM, Maing H PO. Amylase activity of some roots and sprouted cereals and beans.
Nutr. Bull 1995: 16:176-181.

8 Chikwndu NJ. the effects of germination on the chemical composition and quality of ground
bean (Kerslingisella geocarpa) flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2003: 24(1): 17-22.

9 Kulkarni SD . Roasted soybean in cookies. Influence on product quality. J Food Sci Technol
1997: 34:503-505.
10 Akubor PI, Chukwu JK.Proximate composition and selected functional properties of
fermented and unfermented African oil bean (pentaclethra Macrophylla) seeds flour. Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr 1999: 54:227-238.

11 Badifu, G. I. O. Effect of processing on proximate composition, antinutritional and
toxiccantants of kernels from cucarbitaceae species grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr
2000: 56:182-190.

12 King RD, Puwasterm P. Effect of germination on the proximate compositon and nutritional
quality of winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragolobus) seeds. J. Food Sci 1987: 51:52-60).

13 Akubor PI, Obiegbunam JE. Cereal chemical and functional properties of ungerminated and
germinated milled flour J. Food Sci. Technol 1999: 36(3): 241-243.

14 Ariahu CC, Ukpabi U, Mbajunwa KO.Production of African breadfruit(Treculia africana) and
soybean(Glycine max)seed based food formulation:Effect of germination and fermentation on
nutritional and organolptic quality. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 1999:54:193-206

15 Sosulski, F. W., M. O. Garratt and A. E. Sunkard. 1976. Functional properties of ten legume
flours. Can Inst. Food Sci. Technical J. 9: 666-69.

16 Naragana K, Narasinga Rao MS. Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged
bean (phophacarpus tetragonolobius) flour. J. Food Sci 1982:47: 1534-1538.

17 Okaka J C, Porter NN. Functional and storage properties of cow pea wheat flour blends in
bread making. J. Food Sci 1977: 42:828-831.

18 Onimawo,I.A.,Akubor, P.I., 2012. Food Chemistry (Itegrated Approach with
Biochemical Background).2nd edn. Joytal Printing Press, Agbowo, Ibadan, Nigeria 2012:
165-267

19 AOAC . Official methods of analysis (20th edn) Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Washington, D. C. 2010

20 SPSS. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).version SPSS 16.0. SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, IL, USA 2008.

21a Akubor PI .Evaluation of the chemical composition and sensory properties of
complementary
foods prepared from germinated cowpea and sweet potato flour blends. Nig J Nutri Sci
2016a:37(1):11-19


21b Akubor PI.Effect of fermentation on proximate composition, functional and sensory
propwerties of complementary foods prepared from cowpea and sweet potato flour blends.
Nig J Nutri Sci 2016b:37(2):117-124


22 Obizoba IC . Effect of sprouting on the nitrogenous constituents and mineral composition of
pigeon pea. (Cajanus cajan) seeds. Plants Food Hum. Nutr 1991: 41:21-25.

23 Osagie AU Antinutritional factors. In: nutritional quality of plant foods. Osagie AU, Eka OU.
(Eds.) Post Harvest Research Unit, Uni. Benin, Benin city 1998:221-244.

24 Mosha TC, Gaga HE. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and
chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant foods hum. Nutr 1999:
54: 271-283.

25 Akubor PI, Isolokwu PC, Ugane O , Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional
properties of African bread fruit kernel and wheat, flour blends. Food Res. Int 2000: 33:707-
712.

26 Yasumatsu, K. K. Sawada., S. K. Moritaka, M. MIkas, J. Toda, J. Wada, J. Ishill. 1972.
Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agric Bio. Chem. 36: 719-727.















1 Rachie K O, Wurster R. 2007. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as a
horticultural crop in East Africa. 1 SHS Acts hortictive 2007: 21: 1-5.

2 Rao VS , Vakie U K, Layam SS. Pigeon pea as important food source. CRC Crit Food
Sci Nutr.1986: 23: 103-141.

3 Amarteifio J O, Muntali DC, Karikar SK, Morake T K. The composition of pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) grow in Botswan. Plant foods hum. Nutr 2002: 57:75-177).

4 Igbedioh S O, Olugbemi KT, Akpapunam M A . Effect of processing methods on phytic acid
level and some constituents in bambara groundnut and pigeon pea. Food Chem1994: 50:147
151.

5 Osita BU. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient
contents of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2007: 28(1): 73-80.

6 Hamad AM, Fields MC. 1979. Reduction of protein quality and available lysine of
germinated and ungerminated cereals. J. Food Sci 1979: 44:456-459.

7 Maungi KM, Maing H PO. Amylase activity of some roots and sprouted cereals and beans.
Nutr. Bull 1995: 16:176-181.

8 Chikwndu NJ. the effects of germination on the chemical composition and quality of ground
bean (Kerslingisella geocarpa) flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2003: 24(1): 17-22.

9 Kulkarni SD . Roasted soybean in cookies. Influence on product quality. J Food Sci Technol
1997: 34:503-505.
10 Akubor PI, Chukwu JK.Proximate composition and selected functional properties of
fermented and unfermented African oil bean (pentaclethra Macrophylla) seeds flour. Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr 1999: 54:227-238.

11 Badifu, G. I. O. Effect of processing on proximate composition, antinutritional and
toxiccantants of kernels from cucarbitaceae species grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr
2000: 56:182-190.

12 King RD, Puwasterm P. Effect of germination on the proximate compositon and nutritional
quality of winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragolobus) seeds. J. Food Sci 1987: 51:52-60).

13 Akubor PI, Obiegbunam JE. Cereal chemical and functional properties of ungerminated and
germinated milled flour J. Food Sci. Technol 1999: 36(3): 241-243.

14 Ariahu CC, Ukpabi U, Mbajunwa KO.Production of African breadfruit(Treculia africana) and
soybean(Glycine max)seed based food formulation:Effect of germination and fermentation on
nutritional and organolptic quality. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 1999:54:193-206

15 Sosulski, F. W., M. O. Garratt and A. E. Sunkard. 1976. Functional properties of ten legume
flours. Can Inst. Food Sci. Technical J. 9: 666-69.

16 Naragana K, Narasinga Rao MS. Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged
bean (phophacarpus tetragonolobius) flour. J. Food Sci 1982:47: 1534-1538.

17 Okaka J C, Porter NN. Functional and storage properties of cow pea wheat flour blends in
bread making. J. Food Sci 1977: 42:828-831.

18 Onimawo,I.A.,Akubor, P.I., 2012. Food Chemistry (Itegrated Approach with
Biochemical Background).2nd edn. Joytal Printing Press, Agbowo, Ibadan, Nigeria 2012:
165-267

19 AOAC . Official methods of analysis (20th edn) Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Washington, D. C. 2010

20 SPSS. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).version SPSS 16.0. SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, IL, USA 2008.

21a Akubor PI .Evaluation of the chemical composition and sensory properties of
complementary
foods prepared from germinated cowpea and sweet potato flour blends. Nig J Nutri Sci
2016a:37(1):11-19


21b Akubor PI.Effect of fermentation on proximate composition, functional and sensory
propwerties of complementary foods prepared from cowpea and sweet potato flour blends.
Nig J Nutri Sci 2016b:37(2):117-124


22 Obizoba IC . Effect of sprouting on the nitrogenous constituents and mineral composition of
pigeon pea. (Cajanus cajan) seeds. Plants Food Hum. Nutr 1991: 41:21-25.

23 Osagie AU Antinutritional factors. In: nutritional quality of plant foods. Osagie AU, Eka OU.
(Eds.) Post Harvest Research Unit, Uni. Benin, Benin city 1998:221-244.

24 Mosha TC, Gaga HE. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and
chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant foods hum. Nutr 1999:
54: 271-283.

25 Akubor PI, Isolokwu PC, Ugane O , Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional
properties of African bread fruit kernel and wheat, flour blends. Food Res. Int 2000: 33:707-
712.

26 Yasumatsu, K. K. Sawada., S. K. Moritaka, M. MIkas, J. Toda, J. Wada, J. Ishill. 1972.
Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agric Bio. Chem. 36: 719-727.















1 Rachie K O, Wurster R. 2007. The potential of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as a
horticultural crop in East Africa. 1 SHS Acts hortictive 2007: 21: 1-5.

2 Rao VS , Vakie U K, Layam SS. Pigeon pea as important food source. CRC Crit Food
Sci Nutr.1986: 23: 103-141.

3 Amarteifio J O, Muntali DC, Karikar SK, Morake T K. The composition of pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan) grow in Botswan. Plant foods hum. Nutr 2002: 57:75-177).

4 Igbedioh S O, Olugbemi KT, Akpapunam M A . Effect of processing methods on phytic acid
level and some constituents in bambara groundnut and pigeon pea. Food Chem1994: 50:147
151.

5 Osita BU. Evaluation of the effect of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient
contents of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2007: 28(1): 73-80.

6 Hamad AM, Fields MC. 1979. Reduction of protein quality and available lysine of
germinated and ungerminated cereals. J. Food Sci 1979: 44:456-459.

7 Maungi KM, Maing H PO. Amylase activity of some roots and sprouted cereals and beans.
Nutr. Bull 1995: 16:176-181.

8 Chikwndu NJ. the effects of germination on the chemical composition and quality of ground
bean (Kerslingisella geocarpa) flours. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci 2003: 24(1): 17-22.

9 Kulkarni SD . Roasted soybean in cookies. Influence on product quality. J Food Sci Technol
1997: 34:503-505.
10 Akubor PI, Chukwu JK.Proximate composition and selected functional properties of
fermented and unfermented African oil bean (pentaclethra Macrophylla) seeds flour. Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr 1999: 54:227-238.

11 Badifu, G. I. O. Effect of processing on proximate composition, antinutritional and
toxiccantants of kernels from cucarbitaceae species grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr
2000: 56:182-190.

12 King RD, Puwasterm P. Effect of germination on the proximate compositon and nutritional
quality of winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragolobus) seeds. J. Food Sci 1987: 51:52-60).

13 Akubor PI, Obiegbunam JE. Cereal chemical and functional properties of ungerminated and
germinated milled flour J. Food Sci. Technol 1999: 36(3): 241-243.

14 Ariahu CC, Ukpabi U, Mbajunwa KO.Production of African breadfruit(Treculia africana) and
soybean(Glycine max)seed based food formulation:Effect of germination and fermentation on
nutritional and organolptic quality. Plants Foods Hum Nutr 1999:54:193-206

15 Sosulski, F. W., M. O. Garratt and A. E. Sunkard. 1976. Functional properties of ten legume
flours. Can Inst. Food Sci. Technical J. 9: 666-69.

16 Naragana K, Narasinga Rao MS. Functional properties of raw and heat processed winged
bean (phophacarpus tetragonolobius) flour. J. Food Sci 1982:47: 1534-1538.

17 Okaka J C, Porter NN. Functional and storage properties of cow pea wheat flour blends in
bread making. J. Food Sci 1977: 42:828-831.

18 Onimawo,I.A.,Akubor, P.I., 2012. Food Chemistry (Itegrated Approach with
Biochemical Background).2nd edn. Joytal Printing Press, Agbowo, Ibadan, Nigeria 2012:
165-267

19 AOAC . Official methods of analysis (20th edn) Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Washington, D. C. 2010

20 SPSS. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).version SPSS 16.0. SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, IL, USA 2008.

21a Akubor PI .Evaluation of the chemical composition and sensory properties of
complementary
foods prepared from germinated cowpea and sweet potato flour blends. Nig J Nutri Sci
2016a:37(1):11-19


21b Akubor PI.Effect of fermentation on proximate composition, functional and sensory
propwerties of complementary foods prepared from cowpea and sweet potato flour blends.
Nig J Nutri Sci 2016b:37(2):117-124


22 Obizoba IC . Effect of sprouting on the nitrogenous constituents and mineral composition of
pigeon pea. (Cajanus cajan) seeds. Plants Food Hum. Nutr 1991: 41:21-25.

23 Osagie AU Antinutritional factors. In: nutritional quality of plant foods. Osagie AU, Eka OU.
(Eds.) Post Harvest Research Unit, Uni. Benin, Benin city 1998:221-244.

24 Mosha TC, Gaga HE. Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and
chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant foods hum. Nutr 1999:
54: 271-283.

25 Akubor PI, Isolokwu PC, Ugane O , Onimawo IA. Proximate composition and functional
properties of African bread fruit kernel and wheat, flour blends. Food Res. Int 2000: 33:707-
712.

26 Yasumatsu, K. K. Sawada., S. K. Moritaka, M. MIkas, J. Toda, J. Wada, J. Ishill. 1972.
Whipping and emulsifying properties of soybean products. Agric Bio. Chem. 36: 719-727.
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Akubor, P. I. (2017). Effect of processing methods on the chemical composition and functional properties of pigeon pea seed. Innovare Journal of Food Sciences, 5(4), 15-19. Retrieved from https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijfs/article/view/21068
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