PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SUN AND OVEN DRIED SWEET ORANGE PULP FLOURS
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the phytochemical composition and physical and sensory properties of biscuits supplemented with sun- and oven-dried sweet orange pulp flours.
Methods: The sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was washed in distilled water, peeled manually and the juice was extracted. The pulp was separated from the seeds and then cut into pieces. A portion of the pulp was sun dried (32°C) and the second portion was oven at 60°C to constant weight. The dried pulp samples were milled and sieved through 500 μm sieve and analyzed for phytochemical composition. The sun- and oven-dried flour samples, respectively, were used to substitute 20% of wheat flour. Biscuits were prepared from the flour blends and evaluated for the phytochemical composition and physical and sensory properties.
Results: The saponin, carotenoid, phytate, and terpenoid contents of the sun-dried sweet orange flour were higher than those of the oven-dried sweet orange flour. However, the oven pulp flour had higher amounts of total phenol and flavonoids than the sun-dried sweet orange pulp flour. The phytochemical contents of the biscuits supplemented with sweet orange pulp flours were lower than those of the pulp flours. The biscuit supplemented with the sun-dried sweet orange pulp flour contained higher amounts of total phenol, saponins, and phytates than the biscuit supplemented with oven-dried sweet orange pulp flour. The diameter, height, weight, volume, and spread ratio of the biscuits supplemented with sun- and oven-dried sweet orange pulp flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The scores for color, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of the biscuits containing sun- and oven-dried sweet orange pulp flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). However, the biscuit containing oven-dried sweet orange pulp flour was rated significantly higher (p<0.05) for texture.
Conclusion: The biscuits supplemented with sun-dried sweet orange pulp flour contained higher amounts of saponins and phytates but lower amounts of flavonoids, carotenoids, and terpenoids than the biscuits supplemented with oven-dried sweet orange pulp flour. The physical and sensory properties of the biscuits supplemented with sun- and oven-dried sweet orange pulp flours were not significantly different. However, the biscuit containing oven-dried sweet orange pulp flour was rated higher in all the sensory attributes except texture.
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