COMPARISON OF FIVE ANTIOXIDANT ASSAYS FOR ESTIMATING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY FROM THREE SOLANUM SP. EXTRACTS
Objectives: The aims of this research were to determine antioxidant capacity of various extracts from black nightshade, turkey berry, and round
green eggplant using five antioxidant assays which were ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC),
scavenging, phosphomolybdenum assay, and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB), correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid content with
their inhibitory concentration 50% (IC
) and exhibitory concentration 50% (EC
) of five antioxidant assay and correlation between five antioxidant
Methods: Extraction was conducted by reflux using gradient polarity solvents. The extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator. The antioxidant
capacity study, determination of phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid content were performed by ultraviolet-visible spectophotometry, while its
correlation with IC
of five methods were analyzed by Pearson's method.
Results: Ethanolic and ethyl acetate fruit extracts of turkey berry denoted the highest antioxidant capacity using FRAP (EC
scavenging assay (IC
1.01 Âµg/ml), and CUPRAC (EC
117.56 Âµg/ml). While ethyl acetate fruit extract of round green eggplant gave the
highest phosphomolybdenum capacity (EC
: 375.47 Âµg/ml), and ethyl acetate fruit extract of black nightshade showed the highest BCB capacity
158.66 Âµg/ml). Phenolic content of all fruit extracts had a tendency to correlate with FRAP and H
scavenging antioxidant capacity, meanwhile
flavonoid and carotenoid content had a tendency to correlate with CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, and BCB antioxidant capacity.
Conclusions: Phenolic compounds were a major contributor in antioxidant capacity of black nightshade, turkey berry, and round green eggplant
extracts using FRAP and H
scavenging, meanwhile flavonoid and carotenoid compounds were a major contributor in antioxidant capacity using
CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum and BCB assays. FRAP assay had linear correlation with H
scavenging, meanwhile CUPRAC had linear correlation
with phosphomolybdenum and BCB.
Keywords: Antioxidant, Antioxidant assays, Solanum fruits.
Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M. Reactive oxygen species,
oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants
under stressful conditions. J Bot 2012;2012:1-26.
Gramza-Michalowska A, Czlapka-Matyasik M. Evaluation of the
antiradical potential of fruit and vegetable snacks. Acta Sci Pol Technol
Rajani C, Ruby KM, Aastha S, Jaya D. Solanum nigrum with dinamic
therapeutic rule: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2012;15(1):65-71.
Chah KF, Muko KN, Oboegbulem SI. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic
extract of Solanum torvum fruit. Fitoterapia 2000;71(2):187-9.
Mohan M, Jaiswal BS, Kasture S. Effect of Solanum torvum on blood
pressure and metabolic alterations in fructose hypertensive rats.
J Ethnopharmacol 2009;126(1):86-9.
Mutalik S, Paridhavi K, Rao CM, Udupa N. Antipyretic and analgesic
effect of leaves of Solanum melongena Linn. in rodents. Indian J
Apak R, Gorinstein S, BÃ¶hm VK, Schaich MK. Methods of
measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity activity:
IUPAC technical report. Pure Appl Chem 2013;85(5):957-98.
Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K. Standardized methods for the determination
of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements.
J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(10):4290-302.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as
a measure of antioxidant powerâ€: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem
Apak R, GÃ¼Ã§lÃ¼ K, OzyÃ¼rek M, Karademir SE. Novel total antioxidant
capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using
their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine:
CUPRAC method. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(26):7970-81.
Ruch RJ, Cheng SJ, Klaunig JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and
inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechins
isolated from Chinese green tea. Carcinogenesis 1989;10(6):1003-8.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of
antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum
complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal
Othman A, Ismail A, Ghani NA, Adenan I. Antioxidant capacity and
phenolic content of cocoa beans. Food Chem 2007;100(4):1523-30.
Marco GJ. A rapid method for evaluation of antioxidants. J Am Chem
Oil Soc 1968;45:594-8.
Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC. Estimation of total flavonoid
content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods.
J Food Drug Anal 2002;10(3):178-82.
Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N. Antioxidant activity,
phenol and flavonoid content of some selected Iranian medicinal plants.
Afr J Biotechnol 2006;5(11):1142-5.
Thaipong K, Unaroj B, Kevin C, Luis CZ, David HB. Comparison of
ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant
activity from guajava fruit extracts. J Food Compost Anal 2006;19:670-1.
Loganayaki N, Siddhuraju P, Manian S. Antioxidant activity of two
traditional Indian vegetables: Solanum nigrum L. And Solanum torvum
L. Food Sci Biotechnol 2010;19(1):121-7.
Al-Fatimi M, Wurster M, SchrÃ¶der G, Lindequist U. Antioxidant,
antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from
Yemen. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;111(3):657-66.
Ramamurthy CH, Kumar MS, Suyavaran VS, Mareeswaran R,
Thirunavukkarasu C. Evaluation of antioxidant, radical scavenging
activity and polyphenolics profile in Solanum torvum L. Fruits. J Food
Adebooye OC, Vijayalakshmi R, Singh V. Peroxidase activity,
chlorophylls and antioxidant profile of two leaf vegetables (Solanum
nigrum L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.) under six pretreatment methods
before cooking. Int J Food Sci Technol 2008;43(1):173-8.
Somawathi KM, Rizliya V, Wijesinghe DG, Madhujith WM. Antioxidant
activity and total phenolic content of different skin coloured brinjal
(Solanum melongena). Trop Agric Res 2014;26(1):152-61.
MacDonald-Wicks LK, Wood LG, Garg ML. Methodology for the
determination of biological antioxidant capacity in vitro: A review.
J Sci Food Agric 2006;86:2046-56.
Fidrianny I, Johan Y, Sukrasno. Antioxidant activities of different
polarity extracts from three organs of makrut lime (Citrus hystrix DC)
and correlation with total flavonoid, phenolic, and carotenoid content.
Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8(4):239-43.
Ak T, GÃ¼lÃ§in I. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of
curcumin. Chem Biol Interact 2008;174(1):27-37.
Pataki L, Zapp E. Basic Analytical Chemistry. 1
ed. Oxford: Pergamon
Aitken RJ, Buckingham D, Harkiss D. Use of a xanthine oxidase
free radical generating system to investigate the cytotoxic effects
of reactive oxygen species on human spermatozoa. J Reprod Fertil
Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. Antioxidant activity and
total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. J Agric
Food Chem 1998;46(10):4113-7.
Simic A, Manojlovic D, Segan D, Todorovic M. Electrochemical
behavior and antioxidant and prooxidant activity of natural phenolics.
Happiot P, Pinson J, Yousfi N. Substituent effects on the redox
properties of phenolates in acetonitrile: One electron redox potential.
New J Chem 1992;16:877-81.
KleinovÃ¡ M, Hewitt M, BrezovÃ¡ V, Madden JC, Cronin MT, Valko M.
Antioxidant properties of carotenoids: QSAR prediction of their redox
potentials. Gen Physiol Biophys 2007;26(2):97-103.
Hodnick WF, Milosavljevic EB, Nelson JH, Pardini RS. Electrochemistry
of flavonoids. Relationships between redox potentials, inhibition
of mitochondrial respiration, and production of oxygen radicals by
flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol 1988;37(13):2607-11.
Crouch SR, Malmstadt HV. Mechanistic investigation of
molybdenum blue method for determination of phosphate. Anal Chem
Terpinc P, Abramovic H. A kinetic approach for evaluation of
Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 9, Suppl. 2, 2016, 123-128
Choirunnisa et al.
the antioxidant activity of selected phenolic acids. Food Chem
Sroka Z, Cisowski W. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging, antioxidant
and anti-radical activity of some phenolic acids. Food Chem Toxicol
Amic D, Davidovic-Amic D, Beslo D, Rastija V, Lucic B, Trinajstic N.
SAR and QSAR of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Curr Med
Beutner S, Bloedorn B, Hoffmann T, Martin HD. Synthetic singlet
oxygen quenchers. Methods Enzymol 2000;319:226-41.
How to Cite
The publication is licensed under CC By and is open access. Copyright is with author and allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions.