PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ASSESSMENT OF ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF MORUS ALBA AND MORUS RUBRA FRUITS
Keywords:Morus alba, Morus rubra, Radical scavenging, Antiproliferated activity, BJ1, Gas liquid chromatography, Gas chromatographymass spectrometry
Objective: Mulberry is a nontoxic commonly eaten plant, belongs to the Morus and used in folk medicine in the remedy of dysentery, antiphlogistic, diuretic, expectorant, and antidiabetic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antiproliferative and radical scavenging activity of the total alcoholic and successive fractions thereof of Morus alba and Morus rubra fruits. In addition, the chemical composition of the bioactive fractions of each species was investigated.
Methods: The antiproliferative potential of 8 extracts on 4 human cancer cell lines, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), Caucasian breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), prostate (PC3), and colon carcinoma (HCT116) in addition to one normal cell line namely human normal immortalized skin fibroblast cells (BJ1) were carried out. Cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The potency was compared with the reference drug doxorubicin. These extracts were also assayed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-hydrazyl free radical scavenging activities. After saponification of the n-hexane fraction, unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The chemical composition of the bioactive fractions was investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis.
Results: All the extracts showed significant free radical scavenging activity dose-dependently. The n-hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) fractions of M. rubra exhibited potent cytotoxic activity on almost cancer cell lines. In the same pattern, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) of M. rubra has moderate cytotoxic activity against all cell lines except HepG2. DCM fraction of M. alba possessed both radical scavenging and high potential antiproliferated activities against HCT116 and MCF7 with inhibitory concentration of 43.9 and 32.3 Î¼g/ml, respectively, while it showed no cytotoxic effect on BJ1. GLC analysis showed the major hydrocarbons in M. alba and M. rubra were heptacosane and docosane, respectively. Sterols were similar in both species but with different ratios and cholesterol was the major one. Palmitic and margaric were the major saturated fatty acid while arachidonic was the major unsaturated fatty acid in both species. GC/MS analysis showed the main compound in DCM fraction of each Morus species was palmitic acid. Furthermore, 1,11-bis-(methoxycarbonyl-ethenyl)-10,2-dihydroxy-cycloeicosane and linolelaidic acid, methyl ester were the main compounds in the EtOAc fraction of each Morus species. Whereas, the main compounds in alcoholic extract of M. alba and M. rubra were methyl-14-methyl-pentadecanoate and 1,2-O-isopropylyidene-4-nonene-1,2,3-triol, respectively.
Conclusions: The results observed remarkable biological activity of the successive fractions of M. rubra more than those of M. alba and confirmed its importance as a natural bioactive source. Morus species are good candidates to be promising as possible sources for future antitumor and antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. The strong activity partly explains the potential effects of Morus species for the treatment of cancer and degenerative diseases caused by free radicals.
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