• GAURAV GUPTA Santosh University, Gaziabad, India


Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and inflammatory diseases are now a day's one of the most popular topics of research. Previous studies have shown
that the patients with SCH have increased levels of triglycerides and signs of low-grade inflammation (raised C-reactive protein levels). Disorder
might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases. However, there is still some controversy concerning the
inflammatory impact of SCH. Treating patients with thyroid stimulating hormone values of <10 mIU/L is not compelling, except in pregnant women.
Fortifying the association between SCH and inflammation and a better understanding of research data may provide a more compelling argument for
future treatment.
Keywords: Thyroid stimulating hormone, C reactive protein, interleukin-6, inflammation


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

GAURAV GUPTA, Santosh University, Gaziabad, India

Asst.Professor, Department of Biochemistry.


Hennessey JV, Espaillat R. Subclinical hypothyroidism: A historical

view and shifting prevalence. Int J Clin Pract 2015;69(7):771-82.

Staub JJ, Noelpp B, Grani R, Gemsenjager E, Hauenstein M, Girard J.

The relationship of serum thyrotropin (TSH) to the thyroid hormones

after oral TSH-releasing hormone in patients with preclinical

hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;56:449-53.

Karmisholt J, Andersen S, Laurberg P. Variation in thyroid function

tests in patients with stable untreated subclinical hypothyroidism.

Thyroid 2008;18(3):303-8.

Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, Ridgway EC. The Colorado

thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(4):526-34.

Deshmukh V, Behl A, Iyer V, Joshi H, Dholye JP, Varthakavi PK.

Prevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of subclinical

hypothyroidism in normal population in Mumbai. Indian J Endocrinol

Metab 2013;17(3):454-9.

Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, Hannon WH, Gunter EW,

Spencer CA. Serum TSH, T4, and thyroid antibodies in the United States

population (1988 to 1994): National health and nutrition examination

survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87(2):489-99.

Papi G, Uberti ED, Betterle C, Carani C, Pearce EN, Braverman LE,

et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes


Dhanwal DK, Prasad S, Agarwal AK, Dixit V, Banerjee AK. High

prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism during first trimester of

pregnancy in North India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013;17(2):281-4.

Khandelwal D, Tandon N. Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism: Who

to treat and how. Drugs 2012;72(1):17-33.

Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, Sawin CT, Col NF, Cobin RH, et al.

Subclinical thyroid disease: Scientific review and guidelines for

diagnosis and management. JAMA 2004;291(2):228-38.

Rugge B, Balshem H, Sehgal R, Relevo R, Gorman P, Helfand M.

Screening and Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism or

Hyperthyroidism. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research

and Quality (US); 2011. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 24.)

Introduction. Available from:


Hulbert AJ. Thyroid hormones and their effects: A new perspective.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2000;75(4):519-631.

Satar S, Seydaoglu G, Avci A, Sebe A, Karcioglu O, Topal M. Prognostic

value of thyroid hormone levels in acute myocardial infarction: Just an

epiphenomenon? Am Heart Hosp J 2005;3(4):227-33.

Staykova ND. Rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid abnormalities. Folia

Med (Plovdiv) 2007;49(3-4):5-12.

Ichiki T. Thyroid hormone and atherosclerosis. Vascul Pharmacol


Doherty DE, Downey GP, Worthen GS, Haslett C, Henson PM.

Monocyte retention and migration in pulmonary inflammation.

Requirement for neutrophils. Lab Invest 1988;59(2):200-13.

Boots CE, Jungheim ES. Inflammation and human ovarian follicular

dynamics. Semin Reprod Med 2015;33(4):270-5.

Zulewski H, Müller B, Exer P, Miserez AR, Staub JJ. Estimation of

tissue hypothyroidism by a new clinical score: Evaluation of patients

with various grades of hypothyroidism and controls. J Clin Endocrinol

Metab 1997;82(3):771-6.

Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 6, 2015, 24-27

Gupta et al.

Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab 2004;89(6):2548-56.

Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hausar SL, Jameson JL, Lozcalzo J.

Disorders of thyroid gland. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal

Medicine. 18

ed., Vol. 1. New York: McGraw Hill Publication; 2012.

p. 2919.


Berk M, Williams LJ, Jacka FN, O’Neil A, Pasco JA, Moylan S,

et al. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the

inflammation come from? BMC Med 2013;11:200.

Gao CX, Yang B, Guo Q, Wei LH, Tian LM. High thyroid-stimulating

hormone level is associated with the risk of developing atherosclerosis

in subclinical hypothyroidism. Horm Metab Res 2015;47(3):220-4.

Hak AE, Pols HA, Visser TJ, Drexhage HA, Hofman A, Witteman JC.

Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for

atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: The

Rotterdam study. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(4):270-8.

Valentina VN, Marijan B, Chedo D, Branka K. Subclinical

hypothyroidism and risk to carotid atherosclerosis. Arq Bras Endocrinol

Metabol 2011;55(7):475-80.

Hamdy N, Adly N, Bakr Y, Salem A, Aty SA. Association between

subclinical hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome. Int J Adv Res


Taddei S, Salvetti A. Endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension:

Clinical implications. J Hypertens 2002;20(9):1671-4.

Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, Meinertz T, Münzel T. Endothelial

dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in

patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2001;104(22):2673-8.

Guzel S, Seven A, Guzel EC, Buyuk B, Celebi A, Aydemir B. Visfatin,

leptin, and TNF- α: Interrelated adipokines in insulin-resistant clinical

and subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocr Res 2013.

Wang HC, Dragoo J, Zhou Q, Klein JR. An intrinsic thyrotropinmediated











Hase H, Ando T, Eldeiry L, Brebene A, Peng Y, Liu L, et al. TNFalpha

mediates the skeletal effects of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Proc Natl

Acad Sci U S A 2006;103(34):12849-54.

Yang SS, Tang L, Li RG, Ge GH, Qu XK, Ma JW, et al. The effects of

subclinical hypothyroidism on serum lipid level and TLR4 expression

of monocyte in peripheral blood of rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett


Xiang G, Yue L, Zhang J, Xiang L, Dong J. The relationship between

circulating TRAIL and endothelial dysfunction in subclinical

hypothyroidism. Endocrine 2015;49(1):184-90.

Taddei S, Caraccio N, Virdis A, Dardano A, Versari D, Ghiadoni L,

et al. Low-grade systemic inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction

in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab


Türemen EE, Çetinarslan B, Sahin T, Cantürk Z, Tarkun I.

Endothelial dysfunction and low grade chronic inflammation in

subclinical hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis. Endocr J


Sieminska L, Wojciechowska C, Kos-Kudla B, Marek B, Kajdaniuk D,

Nowak M, et al. Serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and

interleukin-6 in postmenopausal women with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

Endokrynol Pol 2010;61(1):112-6.

Nielsen CH, Brix TH, Leslie RG, Hegedüs L. A role for autoantibodies

in enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to a selfantigen,

thyroid peroxidase. Clin Immunol 2009;133(2):218-27.

Elshenawy SZ, Hemi MH, Attia H. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory

cytokines (interleukin 6 and interleukin 15) and adiponectin in

hashimoto’s thyroiditis with different thyroid function States. J Am Sci


Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, Zahorska-Markiewicz B, Janowska J.

Increased concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is related to obesity but

not to insulin resistance. Pol J Endocrinol 2004;4:437-41.

Ridker PM, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH. Plasma concentration

of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among

apparently healthy men. Circulation 2000;101(15):1767-72.

Antunes TT, Gagnon A, Bell A, Sorisky A. Thyroid-stimulating

hormone stimulates interleukin-6 release from 3T3-L1 adipocytes

through a cAMP-protein kinase A pathway. Obes Res 2005;13:2066-71.

La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicari E, Calogero AE. Endothelial

dysfunction and subclinical hypothyroidism: A brief review.

J Endocrinol Invest 2012;35(1):96-103.

Roy S, Banerjee U, Dasgupta A. Effect of sub clinical hypothyroidism

on C-reactive protein and ischemia modified albumin. Mymensingh

Med J 2015;24(2):379-84.

Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature 2002;420(6917):


Karoli R, Fatima J, Shukla V, Chandra A, Khanduri S, Rawat A.

Hospital based study of carotid intima media thickness and high

sensitivity C-reactive protein in young hypothyroid patients. J Indian

Acad Clin Med 2014;15(2):116-9.

Mahto M, Chakraborthy B, Gowda SH, Kaur H, Vishnoi G, Lali P. Are

hsCRP levels and LDL/HDL ratio better and early markers to unmask

onset of dyslipidemia and inflammation in asymptomatic subclinical

hypothyroidism? Indian J Clin Biochem 2012;27(3):284-9.

Tian L, Gao C, Liu J, Zhang X. Increased carotid arterial stiffness in

subclinical hypothyroidism. Eur J Intern Med 2010;21(6):560-3.

Tuzcu A, Bahceci M, Gokalp D, Tuzun Y, Gunes K. Subclinical

hypothyroidism may be associated with elevated high-sensitive

C-reactive protein (low grade inflammation) and fasting

hyperinsulinemia. Endocr J 2005;52(1):89-94.

Sharma R, Sharma TK, Kaushik GG, Sharma S, Vardey SK, Sinha M.

Subclinical hypothyroidism and its association with cardiovascular risk

factors. Clin Lab 2011;57(9-10):719-24.

Yu YT, Ho CT, Hsu HS, Li CI, Davidson LE, Liu CS, et al. Subclinical

hypothyroidism is associated with elevated high-sensitive C-reactive

protein among adult Taiwanese. Endocrine 2013;44(3):716-22.

Verma S, Li SH, Badiwala MV, Weisel RD, Fedak PW, Li RK,

et al. Endothelin antagonism and interleukin-6 inhibition attenuate

the proatherogenic effects of C-reactive protein. Circulation


Hennige AM, Staiger H, Wicke C, Machicao F, Fritsche A, Häring HU,

et al. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin

production. PLoS One 2008;3(3):e1765.

Ix JH, Shlipak MG, Brandenburg VM, Ali S, Ketteler M, Whooley MA.

Association between human fetuin-A and the metabolic syndrome:

Data from the Heart and Soul Study. Circulation 2006;113(14):1760-7.

Muratli S, Uzunlulu M, Gonenli G, Oguz A, Isbilen B. Fetuin A as a new

marker of inflammation in Hashimoto thyroiditis. Minerva Endocrinol


Bakiner O, Bozkirli E, Ertugrul D, Sezgin N, Ertorer E. Plasma fetuin-A

levels are reduced in patients with hypothyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol


Wu JT. Circulating homocysteine is an inflammatory marker and a

risk factor of life threatening inflammatory diseases. J Biomed Lab Sci


Andrees M, Boran G, Clarke G, Connor GO. Homocysteine in

subclinical hypothyroidism, a risk factor for atherosclerosis? Endocr

Abstr 2003;5:280.

Mariotto S, Suzuki Y, Persichini T, Colasanti M, Suzuki H, Cantoni O.

Cross-talk between NO and arachidonic acid in inflammation. Curr

Med Chem 2007;14(18):1940-4.

Tian L, Song Y, Xing M, Zhang W, Ning G, Li X, et al. A novel role

for thyroid-stimulating hormone: Up-regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme









kinase A/cyclic





protein pathway.



Lu M, Yang CB, Gao L, Zhao JJ. Mechanism of subclinical

hypothyroidism accelerating endothelial dysfunction (Review). Exp

Ther Med 2015;9(1):3-10.

Dardano A, Monzani F. Recombinant human TSH acutely

impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Eur J Endocrinol


Haynes R. Thyroid and antithyroid drugs. In: Gilman AG,

Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the

Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw Hill,

Inc.; 1993. p. 1361-83.

Colucci P, Yue CS, Ducharme M, Benvenga S. A review of the

pharmacokinetics of levothyroxine for the treatment of hypothyroidism.

Eur Endocrinol 2013;9(1):40-7.

Bilgir O, Bilgir F, Calan M, Calan OG, Yuksel A. Comparison of

pre- and post-levothyroxine high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and

fetuin-a levels in subclinical hypothyroidism. Clinics (Sao Paulo)


Sengül E, Cetinarslan B, Tarkun I, Cantürk Z, Türemen E.

Homocysteine concentrations in subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocr

Res 2004;30(3):351-9.

Razvi S, Ingoe L, Keeka G, Oates C, McMillan C, Weaver JU. The

beneficial effect of L-thyroxine on cardiovascular risk factors,

endothelial function, and quality of life in subclinical hypothyroidism:

Randomized, crossover trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:1715-23.

Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 8, Issue 6, 2015, 24-27

Gupta et al.

Monzani F, Dardano A, Caraccio N. Does treating subclinical

hypothyroidism improve markers of cardiovascular risk? Treat

Endocrinol 2006;5(2):65-81.

Cabral MD, Teixeira P, Soares D, Leite S, Salles E, Waisman M.

Effects of thyroxine replacement on endothelial function and carotid

artery intima-media thickness in female patients with mild subclinical

hypothyroidism. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011;66:1321-8.

Anagnostis P, Efstathiadou ZA, Slavakis A, Selalmatzidou D,

Poulasouchidou M, Katergari S, et al. The effect of L-thyroxine

substitution on lipid profile, glucose homeostasis, inflammation and

coagulation in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Int J Clin Pract


Aksoy DY, Cinar N, Harmanci A, Karakaya J, Yildiz BO, Usman A,

et al. Serum resistin and high sensitive CRP levels in patients with

subclinical hypothyroidism before and after L-thyroxine therapy. Med

Sci Monit 2013;19:210-5.



How to Cite

GUPTA, G., P. SHARMA, P. KUMAR, and R. SHARMA. “SCOPE OF INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 8, no. 6, Nov. 2015, pp. 24-27,



Review Article(s)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>